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© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chapter 11 Nutrition and Diets.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chapter 11 Nutrition and Diets."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chapter 11 Nutrition and Diets

2 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning 11:1 Fundamentals of Nutrition Most people know there is a fundamental relationship between food and good health Many do not know what nutrients are needed Many are not able to choose proper foods for optimum health (continues)

3 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Fundamentals of Nutrition (continued) Nutrition: all body processes relating to food Nutritional status: state or condition of ones nutrition Role of nutrition in physical, mental, emotional, and psychological affects

4 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Effects of Good Nutrition Healthy appearance Good attitude Proper sleep and bowel habits High energy level Enthusiasm and freedom from anxiety (continues)

5 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Effects of Good Nutrition (continued) Diseases or conditions prevented or delayed through good nutrition –Hypertension –Atherosclerosis –Osteoporosis –Malnutrition

6 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning 11:2 Essential Nutrients Chemical elements are found in food Used by the body to perform many different body functions Nutrients are divided into six groups (continues)

7 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Essential Nutrients (continued) Carbohydrates Lipids (fats and oils) Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water

8 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning 11:3 Utilization of Nutrients Digestion –Mechanical –Chemical Absorption Metabolism

9 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning 11:4 Maintenance of Good Nutrition Good nutrition is the best way of achieving and maintaining good health Balanced diet/My Pyramid (See Figure 11-3 in text) If food is not appealing, people will not eat it even if it is healthy; consider variety, taste, color, aroma, texture, and general likes and dislikes

10 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning (continues) Guidelines for Good Eating Habits Variety of foods (See Table 11-4 in text) Find a balance between food and all physical activity Limit fats, saturated fat, and cholesterol Nutritionally rich foods

11 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Guidelines for Good Eating Habits (continued) Dont sugarcoat it Reduce salt Choose foods high in potassium Check food labels and calculate Remember that alcohol can be harmful to your health

12 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Food Habits Affect Nutrition Habits can be based on cultural or religious beliefs Unusual habits are not necessarily bad; must be evaluated Suggesting changes takes tact, patience, and imagination Difficult to change since most are formed in childhood; change takes place over time

13 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning 11:5 Weight Management Weight in relation to height for –Males –Females –Large-boned individuals –Small-boned individuals Body mass index (BMI) helps to determine healthy weight range (continues)

14 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Weight Management (continued) Underweight individuals are more likely to have nutritional deficiencies Causes and treatment Overweight and obesity Causes and treatment Uncontrolled obesity puts a person at higher risk for health problems (continues)

15 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Weight Management (continued) Measuring food energy Caloric requirements vary with each individual and the amount of physical energy expended Energy use needs replacement (continues)

16 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Weight Management (continued) Proper weight control leads to a long and healthy life Gradual weight loss over time Change in habits Exercise First consult with your doctor (continues)

17 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Weight Management (continued) Guidelines for weight loss Guidelines for weight gain One to two pounds per week is the safest way to lose or gain weight Dietary guidelines by the USDA are recommended for weight management

18 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning 11:6 Therapeutic Diets Modification of normal diet used to improve specific health condition Normally prescribed by physician and planned by dietitian May change nutrients, caloric content, and/or texture May seem strange and even unpleasant to patient

19 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Regular or Standard Diet Balanced diet Usually used for ambulatory patients May have slight calorie reduction Decreased or omitted: rich desserts, cream sauces, salad dressings, and fried foods

20 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Liquid Diets Clear and full liquids Liquid foods at body temperature Clear: carbohydrates and water Full: clear liquids plus other liquids Uses such as the following: surgery, digestive problems, to replace lost fluids, and in preparation for X-rays of the digestive tract

21 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Soft Diet Similar to a regular diet, but foods are easy to digest Avoid meat, shellfish, coarse cereals, spicy foods, rich desserts, fried foods, raw vegetables, fruits, and nuts Uses: after surgery, patients with infections, digestive disorders, and chewing problems

22 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Diabetic Diet Used for patients with diabetes mellitus who often take insulin Exchange lists are used to choose foods on exchange lists Avoid sugar-heavy foods

23 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Calorie-Controlled Diets Low-calorieused for patients who are overweight; avoid or limit high-calorie foods High-calorieused for patients who are underweight, have anorexia nervosa, hyperthyroidism, or cancer

24 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Low-Cholesterol Diet Restricts foods containing cholesterol Used for patients with atherosclerosis and heart disease Limit foods high in saturated fats

25 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Fat-Restricted Diets Also called low-fat diet Used for patients with gallbladder and liver disease, obesity, and certain heart diseases Avoid foods high in fat

26 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Sodium-Restricted Diets Otherwise known as low-sodium or low-salt diets Used for cardiovascular diseases, kidney disease, and fluid retention Avoid or limit addition of salt; avoid salt-rich foods

27 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Protein Diets Protein-rich foods such as meats, fish, milk, cheese, and eggs High-protein for children and adolescents for additional growth, pregnant or lactating women, surgery, burns, fevers, infections Low-protein for certain kidney or renal diseases and allergic conditions

28 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Bland Diet Easily digested foods that do not irritate the digestive tract Used for patients with ulcers, colitis, and other digestive diseases

29 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Low-Residue Diet Eliminate or limit foods high in bulk and fiber For patients with digestive or rectal diseases such as colitis or diarrhea

30 © 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Other Therapeutic Diets Other diets may be ordered that restrict or increase certain nutrients Check prescribed diet and ask questions if foods seem incorrect Include patients likes if allowed If patient refuses foods on diet, this will not contribute to good nutrition

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