2 Overview What is a vegetarian diet? Different forms of vegetarianism Why do people choose this diet?Health advantagesHealthy food choicesBest choicesCooking methodsKey nutrientsMeeting protein needsDuring this presentation we will examine what a vegetarian diet is and cover the information you see on this slide. We will look at the different forms of vegetarianism, explore why people may choose to follow a vegetarian diet, and consider the health advantages of this diet as well. Also this presentation will look at the best and most healthy food choices within a vegetarian diet, explore healthy cooking methods as well as those that would add unhealthy salt, sugar and fat and then finally discuss the key nutrients and protein needs of people following this particular diet. Let’s begin…
3 What is a vegetarian diet? one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foodsThe American Dietetics AssociationIncludes: fruits, vegetables, beans, legumes, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, with or without dairy products and eggsAccording to the American Dietetics Association, a vegetarian diet is one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods. A vegetarian diet does include fruits, vegetables, beans, legumes, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, with or without dairy products and eggs.
4 Other Forms of Vegetarian Diets Vegan-excludes meat, dairy, eggs, honeyLacto – excludes meat, eggs (but includes dairy products and honey)Ovo – excludes meat, dairy products (but includes eggs and honey)In addition to that basic definition, there are other forms of a vegetarian diet. A vegan diet excludes meat, dairy products, eggs and honey and is defined as the lack of all foods that contain animal products or byproducts. A lacto-vegetarian diet excludes meat and eggs but includes dairy products and honey while an ovo-vegetarian diet excludes meat and dairy products but includes eggs and honey. Any other variety of vegetarian diets such as semi-vegetarian where a person may eat a diet consisting of mostly vegetarian choices and just a small amount of meat is not considered a true vegetarian diet.
5 Why? A vegetarian diet may be chosen for: Ethical Health Environmental ReligiousPoliticalCulturalAestheticEconomic…or other reasonsThere are many reasons people may choose a vegetarian diet which could include ethical, health, environmental, religious, political, cultural, aesthetic, economic or other reasons. We will take a more in depth look at the health reasons people may choose to follow a vegetarian diet next.
6 Health AdvantagesVegetarian diets have been associated with the following when compared to nonvegetarian diets:Lower LDL cholesterol levelslower risk of death from ischemic heart diseaselower blood pressurelower rates of hypertensiontype 2 diabeteslower body mass indexlower overall cancer ratesVegetarian diets have been associated with many health advantages as compared to non vegetarian diets. Research has supported that vegetarian diets have been associated with lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol(or LDL) levels, lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease, and lower blood pressure. Ischemic heart disease is defined as a lower level of blood supplied to the heart and often results in a heart attack or stroke. In addition, vegetarian diets have been associated with lower rates of hypertension, lower rates of type 2 diabetes, a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates.
7 Healthy Food ChoicesBy nature of the foods in the diet, most all choices are healthyfruits, vegetables, beans, legumes, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, with or without dairy products and eggsRaw or cooked vegetables or fruitsBeans and legumesWhole grain cereals, breads, pastaNuts and seedsLow fat dairy productsEggsBy the nature of the foods within the vegetarian diet, most of the food choices within this diet are healthy. Fruits, vegetables, beans, legumes, cereal grains, nuts and seeds, dairy products and eggs are all healthy choices if you are careful not to add unhealthy fats, sugars, and salt and choose low fat dairy products. Most vegetables and fruits can be enjoyed in their raw form or can be cooked just slightly to conserve the most amount of their natural vitamins and minerals. Canned beans and legumes are a very healthy food choice and can be found alongside other canned vegetables at your local grocery store. There are many whole grain cereals, breads and pasta choices available now and these food provide essential vitamins and nutrients as well as much needed fiber in your diet. Nuts and seeds are also very healthy choices for fiber and there are a wide variety of different types available today. Low fat dairy products will provide a healthy dose of calcium and Vitamin D and also provide protein in a vegetarian diet as well. 1% or skim milk products such as low fat yogurt and cheeses are the best choices. Finally, eggs are another great source of protein and another healthy choice to add to any diet!
8 Added salt, sugar and fat Frying vegetables in oilAdding sugar, butter to fruits during cookingCanned beans with added saltHigh calorie additions to whole grainsAdding sugar, butter, or other high calorie toppings to breads/grainsSalted or sugared nuts and seedsDairy productsWhole fat dairy products are high in saturated fatChoose 1% or skim milk products, low fat or no fat yogurt, and low fat cheesesIn addition to the suggestions on the previous slide, be sure your food choices and cooking methods are not going to sabotage your healthy diet. Frying vegetables in oil will add saturated fat and calories. Vegetables are most healthy when eaten raw, steamed, roasted or boiled for a very short period of time without the addition of salt, sugar or oil. Sautéed vegetables can also be a healthy cooking method, but limit the amount of oil you use and choose olive or canola oil. Adding sugar and butter will also add saturated fat and/or calories to any cooked fruit. Try microwaving your apples with cinnamon for a healthy treat! Be sure to choose beans that do not have added salt when making your choices in the grocery store.Choose canned beans that are canned in water without any added salt.You should also limit the saturated fat, such as butter, as a topping to whole grain breads. A better choice is to dip whole grain bread in balsamic vinegar for a tasty addition. Choose whole grain breads and cereals with lots of fiber and low in saturated fat.Be aware of nuts and seeds that are salted or coated in sugar. While nuts and seeds are healthy choices, choosing low salt or non-sugared varieties are the best choices.While dairy products are a healthy food choice, you should be sure to choose 1% or skim milk products along with low fat or non- fat yogurts and low fat cheeses. Whole fat dairy products are both high in fat and high in calories.
9 Key Nutrients Protein n-3 fatty acids (omega 3 fatty acids) Iron Zinc IodineCalciumVitamins DVitamin B-12While following a vegetarian diet can be a very healthy way to eat, you should be sure to eat a wide variety of foods to ensure you are meeting all your protein, vitamin and mineral needs. Since a vegetarian diet excludes meat, one of the most important considerations is to be sure you meet your protein needs. Eating beans, legumes, nuts, seeds, low fat dairy products and eggs are all excellent sources of protein. We will talk more about protein needs on the next slide. Other key nutrients are omega 3 fatty acids which can be found in fish while iron, zinc and iodine can be found in whole grain breads, cereal and pasta. Calcium and vitamin D are found in dairy products and Vitamin B-12 can be found in dairy products, eggs, and some fortified foods such as breakfast cereals.
10 Meeting Protein Needs Beans Legumes Nuts Seeds Dairy products Milk YogurtCheeseA well planned vegetarian diet can meet your daily protein needs. Beans, legumes, nuts, seeds and dairy products are good sources of protein and by eating a variety of these foods, you should have no trouble getting enough protein. Certain combinations of these protein foods can create what is known as a “complete protein” which is the same sort of protein found in meat. Dairy products also have complete proteins just as they are. Proteins contained in plant foods are incomplete proteins but as mentioned, you can combine certain plant proteins to make what is a complete protein. Combinations such as rice and beans would yield a complete protein.
11 Summary Diet that does not include meat Includes: fruits, vegetables, beans, legumes, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, with or without dairy products and eggsHas been associated with health benefitsCarefully plan diet to ensure key nutrientsIn summary, a vegetarian diet is one that does not include meat but does include fruits, vegetables, beans, legumes, cereal grains, nuts and seeds and may or may not include dairy products and eggs. A vegetarian diet has been associated with health benefits such as lower LDL cholesterol, lower rates of heart disease and lower rates of cancer among other health benefits. And finally, it is important when following a vegetarian diet to be sure your diet includes key nutrients like protein, omega 3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, Vitamin D and vitamin B12. With understanding healthy food choices and nutrients needs, a vegetarian diet can certainly be part of a healthy lifestyle!