2Attraction Mere-exposure effect Repeated exposure to any stimulus, including a person, leads to greater liking for that stimulus.HomophilyTendency to have contact with people who are equal in social status.Matching phenomenonTendency for men and women to choose as partners people who match them on social and personal characteristics.
4AttractionA great deal of evidence shows that individuals will prefer potential partners who are more physically attractive.Young men and women typically rate physical appearance as the most important aspect of sex appeal.Women’s worth may be based on beauty.Men’s worth may be based on success.
5Attraction According to Research: Online: Couples who had been matched for similar attitudes were most attracted to each other.Those with dissimilar attitudes were not so attracted to each other.Greater attraction to the better-looking dates was reported.Study demonstrated the importance of similarity and physical appearance.Online:Some Web sites have tens of thousands of personals ads.Surveys suggest that educated, busy, affluent 20- to 40-year- olds seek partners online.Technology forces users to focus on similar interests, rather than physical attractiveness.
6Mate Selection Explaining our Preferences: Reinforcement theory: Byrne’s Law of AttractionWe tend to like people who give us reinforcements or rewards and to dislike people who give us punishments.Sociobiology: Sexual Strategies TheoryWe look for partners who will produce healthy offspring.Playing Hard-to-Get:Men appear to be equally attracted to “easy-to get” women.“Selectively hard to get” women appear most attractive, because she is “easy to get” for you, but “hard to get” for other men.Limited past sexual experience seems to be the ideal.
7Mate SelectionIntimacy in a romantic relationship is “the level of commitment and positive affective, cognitive and physical closeness one experiences with a partner in a reciprocal relationship.”Self-disclosure is the key characteristic of intimacy.Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR) measures emotional intimacy in a relationship.
8Mate Selection Triangular Theory of Love (Robert Sternberg, 1986) Three components of love:Intimacy - emotional componentPassion - motivational componentDecision or commitment - cognitive component
10Mate Selection Attachment Theory of Love: (Hazan and Shaver) Secure lovers find it easy to get close to others.Avoidant lovers are uncomfortable feeling close to another person.Anxious-ambivalent lovers want desperately to get closer to a partner but often find that the partner does not reciprocate the feeling.
11Mate Selection Love as a Story: A love story is a story about what love should be like.Includes characters, a plot, and a themeTwo central characters in every love storyFalling in love occurs when you meet someone with whom you can create a relationship that fits your love story.Love stories are self-fulfilling.
12Mate SelectionBiology of Love:Passionate love - State of intense physiological arousal and intense longing for union with the other person.Companionate love - Feeling of deep attachment and commitment to a person with whom one has an intimate relationship.Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been used to study brain activity related to love.The rush of love at first sight is caused by body chemistry and neural activity in the brain.Dopamine can produce increased energy, focused attention and reduced need for food and sleep -common experiences of people in early stages of love.Oxytocin - stimulated by touch, including sexual touching and orgasm; may contribute to long-term relationships.
13Death by Broken HeartCan you die of a broken heart?
14Mate Selection Measuring Love: Operational definition: A concept is defined by how it is measured.Scores on the Passionate Love Scale (PLS) were correlated positively with other measures of love and with measures of commitment to and satisfaction with the relationship.
15Mate SelectionTwo Component Theory of Love:Berscheid and Walster’s theory that two conditions must exist simultaneously for passionate love to occur:physiological arousalAttaching a cognitive label (“love”) to the feeling of arousalMisattribution of arousal - When one is in a stage of physiological arousal (from exercising or being in a frightening situation) but attributes these feelings to love or attraction to the person present.
16Mate Selection Worldwide: Men placed more weight on cues of reproductive capacity, such as physical attractiveness.Women rated cues about resources as more important.Some phenomena similar across cultures, such as valuing:intelligencekindnessunderstanding in a mateOthers, such as whether love is a prerequisite for marriage, differ across cultures.