Presentation on theme: "Biological level of analysis"— Presentation transcript:
1 Biological level of analysis Origin of attractionBiological level of analysis
2 Biological level of analysis Animals and humans share a lot of similar behaviour when attracted to each otherEvolutionary theories argue that the purpose is to procreate – pass on ones genes!In the animal kingdom it is common that the males fightover the females
3 The Nature of Human relationships (our emotion of being in love) The result of a biomedical cocktailaccording to Fischer (2004) who argues that the symptoms exhibited in human romantic passion indicate that dopamine, adrenaline, and serotonin all play an important role.Fischer argues that love is not an emotion, but a motivation system – designed to enable us to mate (much like other animals)
4 The love cocktailAdrenaline: makes your heart race, your palms become sweaty… (stress hormone) high energy, less need of sleep and food and more focused attention on the potential mateSerotonin: a neurotransmitter that may be involved in love – not possible to document the exact role in romantic love thoughFischer et al 2003 – used fMRI to investigate the blood flow in 20 men and women to compare brain activity and it was more active in the brain’s reward system when watching their beloved ones
5 The role of hormones in bonding Modern research has discovered that two hormones help to increase the bond between loversAdult attachment – hormones oxytocin and vasopressinOxytocin – released in men and women during touching and sexAlso during childbirth – could explain the “strong” bond between mother and child, or at least secure it – experiments done on rats which confirmed these findings
6 vasopressin Another important hormone for long-term commitment Also released during sexAnimals that have more sex than necessary (humans) prairie volesfor example,test to suppressthe effect of vasopressinWhat happened?
7 Evolutionary explanations Jealousy, David Buss - may be biologically based – to optimize the potential for reproductionLow (1990) – correlation between parasites and the degree of polygyny –higher the higherAnother Buss study analysed facial characteristics such as high cheekbones, masculine chin (symmetrical facial features or not)Read the dirty shirt study by Wedekind 1995 and summarize it with one paragraph
8 Origins of attraction: the cognitive level of analysis Relates to perception and social cognitionIf we perceive another person as similar to oneself –could be the explanation behind the attractionOpposites attract – false! Couples tend to be similar in age, religion, social class, cultural background, personality, education, intelligence, physical attractiveness, attitudes…
9 ActivityWrite down:Describe the psychological characteristics, values, and attitudes of your ideal romantic partner, without thinking of anyone in particular
11 Shared interests and also the other person’s support for one’s own views and attitudes (rewarding) Markey et al (2000) investigated to which similarity is a factor in the way people choose partners.A large sample of young peopleAsked to describe their ideal partnerThen to describe themselvesResults?
12 Results showed similar results – A follow up study with couples showed the sameThough only on AmericansHigher the match – influence how the relationship progressDo Research in psychology and answer the questions 1-4 on p. 277 for tomorrow
13 Sociocultural level of analysis Origins of attractionSociocultural level of analysis
14 Similarity also has do with same social and cultural norms How contact and interaction take place makes a difference/ or influenceFrequency of interacting is a good prediction of liking and also if one lived close (dormitories, elderly homes, campuses, work, school…right Anna?)Interaction provide us with connectedness and attachment and this is a human need,Zajonc – the mere exposure effect
15 THE ROLE OF CULTURE IN THE FORMATION AND MAINTENANCE OF RELATIONSHIPS Love – a different meaning in different culturesMarriage – comes after love or before? Depends on the cultureBuss (1994) largest cross-cultural studies on relationships – from 37 culturesSome aspects were similar – such as sex, but a lot were different such as where they ranked “love”