16What is Love? Companionate vs. Passionate Love Love Styles (Lee, 1976; Hendrick & Hendrick, 1992)Triangular Theory of Love (Sternberg, 1986, 1987)
17Companionate vs. Passionate Love Companionate LoveThe affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwinedPassionate LoveA state of intense longing for union with another. Passionate lovers are absorbed in one another, feel ecstatic at attaining their partner’s love, and are disconsolate on losing it.
19Love Styles (Hendrick & Hendrick, 1992) Erospassionatephysical appearanceLudusgame-playingno commitmentStorgefriendshipslow-moving to commitmentManiapossessiveobsessiveAgapealtruisticgentle, caring, dutifulPragmapragmaticmatch on vital statistics
20The Triangular Theory of Love (Sternberg, 1988) CommitmentPassionIntimacy
21Emotions and Misattribution The Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (Schachter & Singer, 1962)Experience physiological arousalTry to explain the arousal.Misattribution of ArousalThe process whereby people mistakenly infer what causes them to feel the way they do
23What is Love?Prototypical close relationship between 2 adults (Hazan & Shaver, 1994)Sexual systemConcomitant feelings of excitement and physical gratificationCare-givingDesire to protect the other, to offer comfort and to receive comfortAttachmentEmotional bond between two people that keeps them close both physically and emotionally
24Attachment Parent-child relationships Secure Avoidant Characterized by trust, a lack of concern with being abandoned and the view that one is worthy and well likedAvoidantCharacterized by a suppression of attachment needsAnxious/ambivalentCharacterized by a concern that others will not reciprocate one’s desire for intimacy, resulting in higher-than-average levels of anxiety
26Attachment2 Kinds of Avoidant Attachment (Bartholomew, 1990; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991)Fearful AvoidantCharacterized by avoidance of close relationships because of mistrust and fears of being hurtDismissive AvoidantCharacterized by claims of self-sufficiency and no need for close relationships
27Social Exchange and Equity Theories Social exchange theory states that how people feel about their relationships will depend on their perception of the rewards they receive from the relationship and their perception of the costs they incur, as well astheir perception of what kind of relationship they deserve and the probability that they could have a better relationship with someone else.
28Social Exchange Theories In other words, the basic concepts of social exchange theory are reward, cost, outcome, comparison level, and comparison level for alternatives (Thibaut & Kelly, 1959).The outcome of a relationship is based on rewards minus costs. If this is negative, the relationship is not in good shape.
29Social Exchange Theories How satisfied you are with your relationship depends on your comparison level.Comparison level: people’s expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they deserve in a relationship.If a given relationship doesn’t match the expected comparison level, people will be unhappy and unsatisfied.
30Social Exchange Theories How satisfied you are with your relationship also depends on your comparison level for alternatives.Comparison level for alternatives: People’s expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they would receive in an alternative relationship.
31Equity TheoryEquity theory holds that people are happiest with relationships in which the rewards and costs a person experiences and the contributions he/she makes to the relationship are roughly equal to the rewards, costs, and contributions of the other person.
32Social Exchange in Long-Term Relationships The investment model of relationships holds that people’s commitment to a relationship depends on their satisfaction with the relationship in terms ofi) the rewards, costs, and comparison levelii) their comparison level for alternativesiii) how much they have invested in the relationship that would be lost by leaving it