Presentation on theme: "1 Psychology 320: Gender Psychology Lecture 36. 2 Purpose: To critically appraise theory and research related to gender psychology. Term Paper Due Date:"— Presentation transcript:
2 Purpose: To critically appraise theory and research related to gender psychology. Term Paper Due Date: April 9, 2010 Format: Review research related to a contemporary debate regarding gender, sex, and/or sexuality and draw your own conclusions about the debate on the basis of the evidence that you have reviewed.
3 Examples of contemporary debates: Are gender differences the result of biological factors or social factors? Are females and males more similar than different? Does pornography reduce the incidence of rape? Can same-sex couples effectively parent children? Is female circumcision universally wrong? Is the gender wage gap justified? Is fetal sex selection harmful to society? You are not limited to these subjects; any contemporary debate related to gender, sex, and/or sexuality that interests you may be addressed.
4 Length: 10-12 pages, doubled spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font, 1-inch margins. Note that this does not include the title page or reference section. Weight: 20% of your final grade in the course (80% content, 20% style). Instructions regarding the use of TurnItIn will be provided in class closer to the due date of the paper. Varied sources of information may be used (e.g., psychological, anthropological, sociological, biological, medical journals and books).
5 Romantic Relationships: 1. Are there sex differences in the experience of love? (continued)
6 Are there sex differences in the experience of love? (continued) 1. Sternbergs Triangular Theory of Love (continued) As noted last class, Sternbergs theory identifies 8 types of love based on the presence or absence of passion, commitment, and intimacy.
8 Size of triangle = Amount of love Shape of triangle = Type of love Intimacy CommitmentPassion Intimacy PassionCommitment
9 Research has examined sex differences with respect to Sternbergs three components of love: Sternberg, 1997: In romantic and non-romantic relationships, F > M in intimacy, but F = M in commitment and passion. Lemieux and Hale, 1999: In romantic relationships, F > M in intimacy and commitment, but F = M in passion. For both sexes, scores on intimacy, commitment, and passion are related to relationship satisfaction.
10 2. Lees Theory of Love Styles Maintains that there are (a) three primary love styles: eros, storge, and ludus, and (b) three blends of love styles: mania, pragma, agape.
11 LUDUS Pragma Agape EROSSTORGE Mania Lees Theory of Love Styles (Lee, 1973; Hendrick and Hendrick, 1986)
12 Love StyleDescriptionSample Item ErosRomantic and passionate love. I feel that my lover and I were meant for each other. StorgeFriendship love.It is hard to say exactly where friendship ends and love begins. LudusGame-playing love.I try to keep my lover a little uncertain about my commitment to him or her. ManiaManic, dependent, and possessive love; blend of eros and ludus. When I am in love, I have trouble concentrating on anything else. PragmaPractical love; blend of storge and ludus. I consider what a person is going to become in life before I commit myself to him or her. AgapePure and altruistic love; blend of eros and storge. I would endure all things for the sake of my lover. Lees Taxonomy of Love Styles (Lee, 1973; Hendrick and Hendrick, 1986)
13 Research has also examined the correlation between self-esteem and Lees love styles: Hendrick and Hendrick, 2002; Lacey, 2004: F > M on storge and pragma; M > F on ludus and agape. Research has examined sex differences with respect to Lees love styles: Hendrick and Hendrick, 2002: Positive correlation with eros and ludus; negative correlation with mania; no correlation with storge, pragma, and agape.
14 Finally, research has examined cultural differences with respect to Lees love styles: Sprecher et al., 1994: Americans > Japanese and Russians on eros and storge; Americans < Japanese and Russians on ludus and mania.
15 In addition to examining sex differences related to theories of love, researchers have examined sex differences in beliefs about romantic love. Sprecher and Metts (1989); Hendrick and Hendrick, 2002 Used the Romantic Beliefs Scale to assess four beliefs related to romantic love: love finds a way or conquers all; there is only one true love for a person; ones partner is ideal; one can fall in love at first sight.
16 BeliefSample Items Love finds a way.If I love someone, I will find a way for us to be together regardless of the opposition to the relationship, physical distance between us or any other barrier I expect that in my relationship, romantic love will really last; it wont fade with time. One and only true love. There will be only one real love for me. I believe that to be truly in love is to be in love forever. Idealization of partner. The person I love will make a perfect romantic partner; for example, he/she will be completely accepting, loving, and understanding. The relationship I will have with my true love will be nearly perfect. Love at first sight. When I find my true love I will probably know it soon after we meet. I am likely to fall in love almost immediately if I meet the right person. Sample Items from the Romantic Beliefs Scale (Sprecher & Metts, 1989)
17 Found that males scored higher than females. Significant sex differences were found for idealization of partner and love at first sight. Thus, contrary to sex stereotypes, males are more likely than females to hold romantic notions about love.
18 Romantic Relationships: 1. Are there sex differences in the experience of love? (continued)