2The Symbols of American Kinship Unconscious, underlying metaphors for how we think about the worldWhat is a relative?What is a family?How does a person become a relative?
3Kinds of American Relatives Basic termsFather (Step-, -In-law, Grand, Great grand)Mother (Step-, -In-law, Grand, Great grand)Sister (Step-, -In-law, Half-)Brother (Step-, -In-law, Half-)Son (Step-, -In-law, Grand-, Great grand-)Daughter (Step-, -In-law, Grand-, Great grand-)Uncle (Great-)Aunt (Great-)NephewNieceCousin (First-, Second-, Once removed, etc.)Husband (Ex-)Wife (Ex-)Derivative term modifiersStepIn-lawGreatGrandFirstSecondOnceTwiceRemovedHalf-Ex-Foster
4Categories of American Relatives By Blood“Biogenic”The essence/biological material of the body is shared by relativesGenes are shared by relativesKinship as possession of a common substanceMother as genetrixFather as genitorMother and father contribute equally to the child’s substanceBiogenic means “natural” rather than cultural“Real” “Blood” “True” “By Birth”Enduring and unbreakable tiesInvoluntaryBy Code of ConductBy custom, cultural rule or lawMarriage as a culturally determined phenomenonFictive kinNot natural, but man-made relationshipsCome about by choice and free will
5Blood Vs Marriage (con’t) In nature (no cultural code of conductNatural child (son or daughter)Illegitimate child (son or daughter)Natural motherNatural FatherIn law (cultural code, no nature)HusbandWifeIn-laws (father, mother, sister, brother, etc.)Step- (mother, father, sister, brother)Foster (son, daughterBy Blood within cultural conventionsFatherMotherBrotherSisterSonDaughterUncle, auntNiece, nephewGrandparentsGreat grand parentsGrandchildren, Great grandchildrenCousin, first cousin, etc.
6The Family as Set of Relatives Conjugal Family or Family of ProcreationNuclear Family in the U.S.Derived from the joining of two non-relatives by cultural convention through marriage.Sexual intercourse is what allows these two “naturally unrelated” individuals to contribute to the creation of a new person who is related by possession of essential bodily materials to both parents.Without sexual intercourse, new blood relatives cannot be produced.Marriage is a cultural convention that is designed to make non- relatives become relatives to one anotherThe “Natural” Nuclear Family in American Society Mother Father Son Daughter Living together in a single unit/household
7Sexual Intercourse as Symbol Marriage requires sexual intercourse as one of the duties of the husband and wife.(Is a marriage without sex a real marriage?)Marriage and Sexual Intercourse both unite “natural” opposites in many other ways“Natural act (occurs throughout nature) that happens in culturally appropriate ways (where, when and with whom) as an act of free will.Sex: Fitting genitalia togetherGender: Maleness united with femalenessCreating blood ties out of code of conduct tiesDividing activities and behaviors into distinctive opposing and complementary roles (code of conduct roles)Combines physical (intercourse) with spiritual (love)Produces cognatic/non-sexual love relationships out of conjugal/sexual love relationships.
8Marriage and Sexual Intercourse Uniting Opposite Genders How do we tell male from female?Facial hairBreastsTemperamentPhysical strengthMechanical aptitudeNurturing qualitiesAggressionPassivityGenitaliaWe are uncomfortable with same sex marriage precisely because we see the uniting of opposites through intercourse as an inherent part of “family.”
9American Marriage: Unification of Sexual Intercourse and Love Intercourse alone is not sufficient to form a family.Love without sex is not sufficient to form a family.Marriage presupposes that both are present.
10Definitions of LoveAn intense sexual or romantic attachment to another person.What is attachment? Strong feelings of loyalty, affection toward someone or something. A bond with someone or something.What does attach mean? To fasten or bind something to something else.An intense feeling of deep affectionWhat is affection? A feeling of liking or caring for someone or something.SchneiderLove is “enduring, diffuse solidarity”Enduring = long lastingDiffuse = pertains to a wide variety of thingsSolidarity = loyalty and group affiliation - support networkPersonalSpiritualIs a natural part of family
11Schneider’s Types of Love Conjugal love (sexual love)Cognatic love (non-sexual love)
12Styles of love (Hendrick & Hendrick) Logical love (pragma)“I consider a lover’s potential in life before committing myself.”Possessive, excited love (mania)“When my lover ignores me, I get sick all over.”Selfless love (agape)“My lover’s needs and wishes are more important than my own.”Romantic love (eros)“My lover and I were attracted to each other immediately.”Game-playing love (ludus)“I get over love affairs pretty easily.”Friendship (storge, philia)“The best love grows out of an enduring friendship.”
13Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love Three main components of loving relationshipsIntimacyFeelings of closeness, bondedness, and connectednessDesire to share one’s innermost thoughts with the otherDesire to give and receive emotional supportPassionIntense romantic and/or sexual desire for another person, which is accompanied by physiological arousalCommitmentCommitment to maintain the relationship despite potential hardships
14Sternberg’s Types of Love NonloveAll components of love are absent.LikingIntimacy is present.Passion and commitment are absent.Infatuation“Love at first sight”Passion is present.Intimacy and commitment are absent.
15Sternberg’s Triangular Model of Love LikingIntimacyI+CCompanionateLoveI+PRomanticLoveI+P+CConsummateLovePassionCommitmentP+CFatuous LoveEmpty LoveInfatuation
16Sternberg’s Types of Love, con’t Empty loveCommitment is present.Passion and intimacy are absent.Romantic lovePassion and intimacy are present.Commitment is absent.Companionate loveIntimacy and commitment are present.Passion is absent.
17Sternberg’s Types of Love, con’t Fatuous lovePassion and commitment are present.Intimacy is absent.Consummate loveFull or complete measure of loveCombination of passion, intimacy, and commitmentAn ideal type of loveHarder to maintain than to achieve