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The Tuareg Rebellion in Niger and Mali - An Interactive Introduction into two Forgotten Conflicts - ZIF Berlin, September 2008 Jessica Morrison (ext.)

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Presentation on theme: "The Tuareg Rebellion in Niger and Mali - An Interactive Introduction into two Forgotten Conflicts - ZIF Berlin, September 2008 Jessica Morrison (ext.)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Tuareg Rebellion in Niger and Mali - An Interactive Introduction into two Forgotten Conflicts - ZIF Berlin, September 2008 Jessica Morrison (ext.)

2 Introduction Dear Readers, The uprisings of the Tuareg, a nomadic people whose ancestral lands stretch across large parts of the Sahara, received little attention by the international public. The purpose of this presentation is to provide you with information about the historical, political, economical and social background of the conflicts. What are the grievances of the Tuareg? Why have they opted for armed insurrection? We very much hope that the presentation contributes to enhancing your understanding of conflicts which have been simmering since the 1960s in Mali and the 1990s in Niger. As the conflict-scenariaos in Niger and Mali differ, the presentation is divided into two parts which can be accessed seperately. The presentation unfolds automatically. Please use the menu in the right corner on the bottom of each page to navigate. Start with conflict in Niger Start with conflict in Niger backback | next | start | endnextstart end Start with conflict in Mali Start with conflict in Mali

3 N I G E R backback | next | start | endnextstart end

4 The Worlds Poorest… 11% of million km² arable; half is desert 13 million inhabitants; 60% subsist on less than $1/day; GDP per capita of $700 Life expectancy of 45 years; high incidence of disease (bacterial & protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis) 45$ million every year from international donors during Lean Season; threat of drought & famine …with the familiar resource curse Fourth largest uranium supply in the world; also gold, oil, and other minerals 100,000 tons of uranium extracted over past 36 at far below market price Ongoing armed conflict between Nigerien government and Tuareg rebel group for control of uranium fields and profits Map where Tuaregs live, AFP photo backback | next | start | endnextstart end

5 The Blue Men of Niger Estimated 1 – 1.5 million Tuareg over two million km²: Niger (700,000), Mali (300,000), Burkina Faso, Algeria, Libya Masters of the Desert; nomadic descendents of Berbers of North Africa; speak dialect of Tamesheq; Sufi Muslims Marginalized during colonial era Famines in 1970s and 80s; migration to Algeria & Libya Integration into Islamic Legion, Qaddafis Pan-Arab paramilitary force; economic hardship & falling petrol prices in early 90s Light-skinned Tuareg accused black government (Djerma, Hausa) of inequitable economic policy and excessive centralization; first rebellion on 7 May 1990 Five years of guerilla warfare & displacement of thousands; ends in 1995 Ouagadougou Peace Accords, stipulating decentralization and integration of Tuareg February 2007: peace ends with attack on military forces by Le Mouvement des Nigériens pour la Justice (MNJ); 50 soldiers killed and dozens held hostage August 2007: rebellion in Mali; Malian rebels claim alliance with MNJ, but MNJ denies; possible linkages but very complicated backback | next | start | endnextstart end

6 F Rebels objectives similar to previous rebellion: better representation in government, more autonomy, greater share of wealth from uranium and other mineral resources Accuses government of failing to uphold peace accords; government denies; rebels now threaten uranium mines countrys principal source of revenue Police & army have unlimited powers and north has become a battle zone; media blackout and cancellation of all flights to region Amnesty International & Human Rights Watch report extrajudicial killing, rape, arbitrary arrest, indiscriminate use of landmines, civilian attack and violation of Geneva Conventions Government denies human rights abuses; MNJ denies landmines Rhissa Ag Boula (in center), © Gilbert Brun August 2007: President Mamadou Tandja refuses to negotiate with bandits and traffickers; state of emergency declared and 4,000 troops sent to Northern region of Agadez; extended again in November for three months Le Mouvement des Nigeriens pour la Justice (MNJ)… backback | next | start | endnextstart end President Mamadou Tandja, © AFP

7 Urban Terrorism Instead of daggers and camels, rebels now use Kalashnikovs, 4x4s, GPS and satellite phones to launch attacks Communicate with southern rebels & Nigerien diaspora via MNJs blog Possible source of funding: smuggling everything from migrants to fuel, pasta to powdered milk, famous-brand cigarettes to, increasingly, cocaine 25% of cocaine consumed in West Europe passes through West Africa; 40 tons of undetected cocaine, drivers make up to $10,000 on convoy from Algeria to Sudan Rebel movements like MNJ no good for smugglers, who prefer to know who is in power; drug mafia has enough to bribe both rebels and their governments Nigerien government accuses Areva, French nuclear giant and Nigers largest private employer, of funding rebels An oil smuggler, Abdas Salam, © VOA MNJs Blog: backback | next | start | endnextstart end

8 AREVA: Present First mining operations established in 1971 with French joint ventures with Nigerien government: Somair & Cominak 36-year monopoly; Nigerien uranium provides three- quarters of nuclear energy for Frances state-run EDF, ends last summer after complicated chain of events Areva had fixed price of uranium at 27,300 CFA Francs (41.62) per kilo in contract valid until end of 2007; world market price was much higher Price discrepancy, combined with lobbying from Chinese, Australian & Canadian firms for market access, renders agreement fragile April 2007: Nigerien government is attempting to renegotiate with Areva when MNJ rebels attack mining site in Imouraren Areva increases security and hires Captain Agadir Mohammed, a former Tuareg rebel who joined Nigerien army in early 1990s July 6, 2007: Chinese executive of CNECC kidnapped by MNJ rebels, who believed govt was purchasing arms from China; Captain Mohammed defects to fight with MNJ rebels Uranium mining site, © AREVA backback | next | start | endnextstart end

9 The End of an Empire… Nigerien govt concludes Areva is backing Tuareg rebellion; expels Areva country representative, Dominique Pin President Tandja: In light of our investigations, there were bank transfers from Areva to soldiers who deserted; suspects Areva of funding rebels to foment conflict and discourage rival firms from investing in region August 4, 2007: Compromise. Pres. Tandja meets with French Minister for Cooperation & Development, Jean-François Bockel Areva granted five of twenty mining rights and price rises from per kilo to per kilo August 5, 2007: end to Arevas monopoly publicly declared; 122 contracts signed with Chinese, American, Indian, Canadian, and other foreign firms Poster from MNJ website: backback | next | start | endnextstart end

10 The rebellion continues… Neither end of monopoly nor expansion of industry benefits the Tuaregs; MNJ Leader Aghaly Ag Alambos (at right) says uranium wealth impoverishes Tuaregs; destroys nomadic lifestyle December 2007: HRW reports that rebels use of landmines has changed from defensive to offensive to cause military casualties; landmines in Maradi & Tahoua January 2008: We will attack the mines, prevent exploration of new quarries, seize cargo en route to the sea…You cant exploit uranium without us. – MNJ leader Rhissa Ag Boula February 2008: MNJ says no peace until integration; government extends state of alert for six more months French NGO reports dangerously high radioactivity levels in soil, water, and metal scrap close to two mining sites; Int. NGO says Arevas workers not warned about health risks of mining; long-term exposure to radon linked with lung cancer; workers not provided with basic protection Areva blames sickness on harsh desert climate; accusations of negligence and lack of transparancy…are in total contradiction with the real facts. Role of US & TSCTP: began in 2005; training program in nine pan-Sahel countries; hinder Tuaregs ability to cross borders & exacerbates regional tensions backback | next | start | endnextstart end Aghali Alambos

11 An unstable future… Price of new gold expected to continue to rise exponentially; already six times the price of a decade ago Uranium as a potential source of international conflict: IAEA says overall world demand for energy will increase by at least 50 percent in the next 25 years and will have to be met mostly by non-fossil fuels, particularly nuclear energy. Agadem block: large oil deposit on Chadian border; exploration & production rights to be granted this year; same trajectory as other resource-rich states? Governments inability to cope water/ food shortages (locust- plague famine of 2005 threatened lives of 3 million); food monitors predicting especially difficult year for Sahel countries; in Niamey, increase in cost of corn by 20 percent and cost of millet by 18.5 percent HRW: US, France, and ECOWAS should guarantee safe and unlimited access to humanitarian actors in northern region Former rebel and current Nigerien Commissioner for Peace, Muhammed Anacko: Rebellion may last five or 15 years, but it will end in talks. Why dont we just go to them now? © 2003 Melissa Enderle WFP photo backback | next | start | endnextstart end

12 March 2009: Tuareng rebel group Niger Patriotic Front (FPN) splits from MNJ 7 April 2009: 3 main Niger Tuareg rebel groups MNJ, FPN, Front of Forces for Retification (FFR split in May 2008 from MNJ) and government pledge peace 4 May 2009: President Mamadou Tandja holds peace talks with Tuareg rebel leaders for the first time Recent developments… backback | next | start | endnextstart end


14 AREVA: A World Energy Expert World leader in nuclear power and only company to cover all industrial activities in the field; offers reliable technological solutions for non CO2 emitting power generation and electricity transmission and distribution 1)Front End: uranium ore exploration, mining, concentration, conversion/enrichment 2) Reactors & Services: design & construction of nuclear reactors; supply of products & services for nuclear power maintenance 3) Back-End: treatment & recycling of used fuel; cleanup of nuclear facilities; logistics 4) Transmission & Distribution: supply of products, systems & services for electricity transmission & distribution networks 11,923 million in sales revenue and 743 million net income as of 31 December 2007; 65,583 employees; manufacturing in 43 countries & sales in 100 countries worldwide AREVAs Four Divisions: Established on September 3, 2001 (formerly CEA-Industrie); currently CEA, the French State & Erap hold 87% of group's capital backback | next | start | endnextstart end Yellow-cake uranium, © AREVA

15 End of Niger-Presentation click here to continue with Mali-Presentation click here click here to start over click here click here to view sources of Niger-Presentation click here backback | next | start | endnextstart end

16 M A L I backback | next | start | endnextstart end

17 From ancient empire… At height of Mali empire in 14 th century, cities of Djenné and Timbuktu are renowned centers of trade, scholarship, and wealth Mali colonized by French from late 19 th century to 1958; access to medicine and education limited to small minority and little development achieved 12.3 million inhabitants; 72.3% subsist on less than $1/day (2006); average GDP per capita $498 (2006) …to widespread poverty Decolonization: Mali first proclaimed Sudanese republic in 1958; achieved complete independence after Senegals succession in 1960 Since independence, high birth rates, bankruptcy, and destitution; severe droughts from and 1980,1985 Due to fertile Niger river basin in south and east, Mali is fairly self-sufficient for its food Despite numerous ceasefire agreements, continuous violence between Tuareg rebels in north and Malian government in southern capital of Bamako; rebels allege links with Nigerien Tuareg rebels of MNJ backback | next | start | endnextstart end Ancient Mosque in Timbuktu, © Luca Scandella

18 The Blue Men of Mali Estimated 300,000 Tuareg in Mali; nomadic descendents of Berbers of North Africa; speak dialect of Tamesheq; Sufi Muslims Tuareg society divided by clan and tribe and based on caste system, including slaves and freemen; nobility depended on black Tuareg (Bellah) slaves for manual labor Light-skinned Tuareg regarded themselves superior to dark- skinned farmers in south; collected taxes from farmers in Niger River delta before and during colonial era During colonial rule, French recognize Tuareg claims to land ownership and right to tax local farmers Post-colonial government comprised mostly of southern ethnic groups unsympathetic to pastoral traditions of northern nomads Regard Tuareg lifestyle as regressive and a hindrance to development; regarded taxation of farmers as extortion Malian Tuaregs perceive discrimination and are alarmed by land reforms (government believed that farmers owned land, as they cultivated it); some leaders fear that the new government elite sought to destroy Tuareg culture © Luca Scandella backback | next | start | endnextstart end

19 The roots of rebellion… Early 1962: First Tuareg rebellion begins; less than 1,500 rebels carry out small attacks on camelback on government targets; attacks escalate in 1963 Tuareg rebels lack adequate weaponry, strategy and organization; defeated in 1964 by Malian army, which is trained and equipped with Soviet weapons At end of first rebellion, northern regions inhabited by Tuareg are placed under oppressive military rule, with human rights violations committed by both sides Many Tuareg flee Mali to seek refuge in neighboring countries; like Tuareg in Niger, many find themselves in Qaddafis Pan-Arab paramilitary forces in Libya and the Near East, where they gain significant experience in combat Falling oil prices in 1985 and Libyas military invasion of Chad in 1986 forced many Tuareg back to respective countries; some allege that Libya attempted to destabilize Malian and Nigerien govts by providing Tuareg dissidents with training and arms By end of 1980s, national sense of dissatisfaction and resentment towards government; between 1968 and 1990, governmentt had invested only 17 percent of infrastructure funding in northern regions and previous Tuareg grievances still remained backback | next | start | endnextstart end

20 Renewed rebellion... June 1990: Tuareg rebel groups launch second rebellion; though not united, four major groups much more organized than first rebellion; joined also by some Beduoin Arabs and Maurs Though numbering no more than a few thousand, rebels better armed, extremely mobile, and more effective in damaging govt facitilities ; govt declares state of emergency and launches aggressive attacks on Tuareg communities Malian Army and gendarmerie face considerable casualties; President Touaré, already faced with domestic opposition (he was later overthrown in a coup) agrees to Algerian mediation with Tuareg rebel leaders ; Accords of Tamanrasset signed between parties on 6 June 1991 Despite distrust between parties and coup d'état of March 1991, peace process continues and Tuareg rebels and newly elected government sign National Pact in April 1992 National Pact stipulated: Integrated Tuareg rebels into Malian govt and army cease-fire, exchange of prisoners, reduction of military presence in north integration of rebel combatants into Malian army, administrative decentralization …A landmark peace backback | next | start | endnextstart end

21 LAlliance Démocratique du 23 mai pour le Changement (ADC) Early 2006: Hassan Fagaga, a former rebel leader who had joined Malian army, deserts post to form Tuareg group ADC; occupies northeastern region of Kidal and seizes army barracks in Kidal, Menaka and Tessalit June 2006, President Touré: I am a soldier of peace. My role is not to pour oil on the fire…Mali must give a good example in its management of this crisis. (IRIN) July 2006: Algiers Accord signed by rebels and Malian govt, stipulating investment in Kidal, reintegration of rebels into army forces and reduction of troops in northern region August 2007: army officials report Fagaga has deserted; rebels backing chief Ibrahim Ag Bahanga kidnap about 30 Malian soldiers in first in series of armed attacks and kidnappings Early April 2008: rebel positions struck by Malian attack helicopters after rebels attempt to block a military convoy; 60 deaths reported 3 April: ceasefire brokered by Libyan President Qaddafi signed between rebels and Malian govt in Tripoli, Libya Malian President Amadou Touré, © AFP backback | next | start | endnextstart end Hassan Fagaga (left) and his men:

22 The current state of affairs… Tuareg Chief Ibrahim Ag Bahanga 21 May: Tuareg rebels attack government post in Abeibara (150km north of Kidal); 15 govt troops and 17 rebels killed; some believe attack is linked to goodwill mission of Muslim countries led by President Qaddafi Tuareg spokesman says attack was to avenge death of rebel leader Barka Cheikh, whose body was found on 11 April near Kidal UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon: This latest incident underscores the urgent need to find an immediate and lasting solution to this recurrent conflict so that Mali can focus on its development priorities and consolidation of its democracy. (IRIN) June 2008: UN Special Representative and Head of the UN Office for West Africa (UNOWA) visited Mali to assess situation July 21, 2008: Malian govt and Tuareg rebels sign agreement mediated by Algerian govt, giving both sides until August 15 to fulfil commitments to end attacks, return hostages and de-mine some areas August 17,/ Sept : Malian rebels release 21/44 hostages to govt authorities as gesture of good faith; regarded as sign of hope for continued peace in Northern Mali (IRIN) backback | next | start | endnextstart end Continue With Conflict in Niger

23 Sources Niger Areva: Solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transport.. A radioactive rebellion. The Economist (15 September 2007). Vol. 384, Issue Areva is nobodys enemy in Niger after Tuareg rebel threats. Agence France Presse – English (31 January 2008). Areva pledges commitment to peace in Nigers uranium zone. Agence French-Presse (5 September 2007).. Colombant, Nico, Mali Government Attempts to Open Dialogue With Rebels, as Instability Escalates in North. Voice of America (27 March 2008).. Country Reports on Terrorism. U.S. Department of State (30 April 2007).. Famine Not Fanaticism the Real Enemy is West Africa. IRIN (20 October 2004).. Frances Sarkozy aims to defuse Niger/Areva row. Reuters (27 July 2007).. French Niger Uranium Mines Under Direct Threat From Tuareg Nomads. Agence French-Presse (31 January 2008).. From Camels to 4x4s: a history of the Tuareg rebels. Agence France Presse – English. (25 March 2008). Kaplan, Robert, Americas African Rifles. The Atlantic (April 2005).. Mamane, Dalatou, Nigerien rebels: Chinese hostage to be freed immediately. The Associated Press (11 July 2007). Massalatchi, Abdoulalye, Niger blames desert rebels for mine death in capital. Reuters (9 January 2008).. Massalatchi, Abdoulaye, Niger government denies army abuses in Sahara. Reuters (21 December 2007).. Mokumbira, Rodrick, Niger extends Arevas uranium mining contracts. Mineweb (3 August 2007).. backback | next | start | endnextstart end

24 Ace Niger-Mali Tuareg Unrest. Reuters AlertNet (3 September 2007).. Niger: Emergency legislation infringes non-derogable human rights. Amnesty International (21 September 2006).. Niger: Rebels raid town in south east. IRIN (22 January 2008).. Niger: Tuareg ex-combatants to get promised assistance a decade after peace accord. United Nations Regional Integration Network (14 October 2005).. Niger: Uranium – Blessing or curse? United Nations Regional Integration Network (10 October 2007).. Niger: Warring Sides Must End Abuses of Civilians. Human Rights Watch (19 December 2007).. Niger's government, Tuareg rebels pledge peace. Reuters AlertNet (7 April 2009).. Niger leader meets Tuareg rebels. BBC News (4 May 2009).. Sengupta, Kim, President Tandja: The people of Niger look well- fed, as you can see. The Independent (10 August 2005).. Suspected Tuareg rebels attack Niger uranium mine. Reuters (20 April 2007).. Thomas-Jensen, Colin and Maggie Fick, Foreign Assistance Follies in Niger. CSIS Online Africa Policy Forum (4 September 2007).. Tran, Phuong, In Niger, Cargo Changes But Sahara Desert Trafficking Remains. Voice of America (27 February 2008).. Tran, Phuong, Niger Conflict Draws in More Civilians. Voice of America (26 February 2008).. backback | next | start | endnextstart end Uranium in Niger…the battle begins. Consultancy Africa (6 September 2007). Accessed 30 March 2008:. Uranium Mining. World Nuclear Association.. West Africa: Rising food prices cause for concern. IRIN (10 March 2008).. World Factbook: Niger. Central Intelligence Agency (20 March 2008)..

25 backback | next | start | endnextstart end Sources Mali Mali: Civil society cautiously optimistic about prisoner release IRIN (11 Sept. 2008). Mali: UN Secretary General warns of deteriorating situation. IRIN (23 May 2008) Malian civic group calls for national mediation to solve Tuareg rebellion. African Press (27 May 2008).. Country Profile: Mali. BBC News (18 June 2008). Country Profile: Mali. UN Data (2006).. Daniel, Serge. Peace process in Mali back on track thanks to Algeria. Agence France Presse (23 July 2008).. Factbox – Uprisings by Tuareg rebels in Mali and Niger. Reuters (22 May 2008).. Fletcher, Pascal. U.N.urges dialogue to solve Sahel Tuareg revolts. Reuters (14 June 2008).. Government strikes new peace deal with Tuareg rebels. IRIN (5 July 2006).. Hicks, Celeste. Malian town under shadow of rebellion. BBC News (30 January 2008).. Keita, Kalifa. Conflict and Conflict Resolution in the Sahel: The Tuareg Insurgency in Mali. Strategic Studies Institute (1 May 1998).. Latham, Brent. Tuareg rebels free Malian soldiers. VOA News (18 August 2008).. Mali rebels holding new group of soldiers hostage. Associated Press (23 March 2008).. Niger-Mali Tuareg unrest. Reuters (3 September 2007).. Tuareg attack kills government soldiers. France 24 International News (22 May 2008).. Tuareg rebels attack Mali convoy. BBC News (22 March 2008).. Tuareg rebels in deadly Mali raid. BBC News (22 May 2008).. UNFPA Worldwide: Country Profile. UNFPA (2005).

26 backback | next | start | endnextstart end Copyright Copyright © 2008 by Zentrum für Internationale Friedens- einsätze/German Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF). All rights reserved. The content provided by this presentation is protected by copyright. It may only be reproduced or electronically processed, copied and/or disseminated with the express written permission of ZIF, unless copyright explicitly states otherwise. Links to external websites The presentation contains links to external websites. As these websites are beyond our control, we cannot assume any responsibility for their content and privacy policy. Legal liability lies exclusively with the operators of these external sites. We also expressly distance ourselves from any illegal and/or disreputable content offered by these sites or from hyperlinks referring to such illegal and/or disreputable content. Should you unexpectedly be referred to such questionable content through our website, we would be grateful if you could notify us at Liability disclaimer This presentation presents interim results of a continuous working process. Although the information contained therein is assembled with utmost care, the ZIF cannot be held liable for the timeliness, correctness and completeness of the information provided. All claims against ZIF for damages of a material or intellectual nature incurred through use of the provided information or through incorrect and incomplete information are null and void. Trademark information All brands, trademarks, and photos used for this presentation are subject without restriction to the applicable valid copyright law and proprietary rights of the respective designated copyright owners. For Information about the Center for International Peace Operations please visit Disclaimer

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