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Presentation on theme: "SUDAN 2 ND SUDANESE CIVIL WAR BY: BETHANY BRAAKSMA."— Presentation transcript:


2 FACTS  Population: 36,992,490  Capital: Khartoum  Official languages: Arabic, English  President: Omar al-Bashir  Religion: 60% Muslim, 38% Christian, 2% Traditional Beliefs  Ethnic Groups: 40% Arab, 60% African

3 CIVIL WAR  More people have died in Sudan's current civil war, the longest civil war in history, than in Kosovo, Bosnia and Rwanda combined.  More than 2 million people have died, and more than 4 million have been displaced  Main areas of conflict: -North Vs. South -South Vs. South -Darfur Region

4 CAUSES OF WAR HISTORICAL  British separated north and south Sudan  Trade was discouraged between the two areas  After decolinization, power went to the Arab Northerners  Established deep rooted hostilities between the Northern Arabs and the Southern Africans

5 CAUSES OF WAR SHARI’A LAW  Central government enforced Shari’a law over all of Sudan  Both Muslims and Christians were forced to follow these laws  Basic constitutional rights were taken away  Deals with many parts of day-to-day life, including politics, economics, business law, sexuality, and social issues.

6 CAUSES OF WAR OIL  Significant oil fields were discovered in the south  Oil revenues make up about 70% of Sudan's export earnings.  Dispute over who will control the oil

7 CAUSES OF WAR CONTROL OVER THE NILE RIVER  The South controls the Nile River  Irrigation systems and dams can be built  The south is more fertile because it has heavier precipitation and greater access to water

8 OUTBREAK  On 26 April 1983, President Nimeiry declared Shari’a law over all Sudan  The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) was formed in 1983 in opposition to the Arab central government. The leader was John Garang.  In 1989 Nimeiry was overthrown and Omar al-Bashir became president  Bashir formed the Popular Defense Forces (al Difaa al Shaabi) and began to invade the south to eliminate the Christian minority

9 WAR  The invasion of the north continued for more than 20 years  The Government used Sukhoi sorties, Tupolev bombers and napalm on both villages and rebel groups  The north targeted schools, hospitals and roads

10 PEACE TALKS  Peace talks between the southern rebels and the government made substantial progress in 2003 and early 2004.  9 January 2005- both sides of the Nairobi Comprehensive Peace Agreement  This granted Southern Sudan autonomy for 6 years, to be followed by a referendum about independence.  It created a co-vice president position and allowed the north and south to split oil equally, but left both the North's and South's armies in place.

11 PEACE TALKS  John Garang became the south's elected co-vice president.  He died in a helicopter crash on August 1, 2005, just three weeks after being sworn into office  Some think the northern government was responsible for the crash  His death sparked some riots, but no serious set backs in the peace talks

12 SOUTHERN SUDAN  Capital: Juba  President: Salva Kiir Mayardit  Population: 11 million  Flag:

13 SOUTH VS. SOUTH  1991- the SPLA split into factions  Disagreement over whether Southern Sudan should become an independent nation  Factions were divided along tribal lines, mainly Dinka and Nuer  Different coalition started to fight each other, fueled by ethic rivalries  The government in the north encouraged and funded divisions in the south

14 SOUTH VS. SOUTH  About the same amount of people have died in the south vs. south conflict as in the north vs. south conflict  Juba was hit the hardest by the north and south  In 1996, a peace charter with the Government of Sudan. It became the basis for peace talks (The SPLA never signed it)

15 DARFUR  Started in the early 1970’s  Hostility between the nomadic Arabs and African farmers settled in the Darfur region  Both sides have committed ruthless acts of war

16 DARFUR  Arab militia are know as the Janjaweed and are accused of acts of genocide  Janjaweed have been launching raids, bombings, and attacks on villages, killing civilians based on ethnicity  Over 2 million civilians have been displaced and the death toll is estimated at 200,000- 400,000 killed

17 PEACE TALKS  May 5, 2006, the Sudanese government and Darfur's largest rebel group the SLM (Sudan Liberation Movement) signed the Darfur Peace Agreement  The agreement specified the disarmament of the Janjaweed and of the rebel forces  Its aim was to establish a temporal government in which the rebels could take part

18 PEACE TALKS FAIL  The agreement was not signed by all of the rebel groups  A new rebel group made up of the 4 main rebel groups who refused to sign the peace agreement called the "National Redemption Front“  There still have been reports of wide-spread violence throughout the region

19 UNITED NATIONS  On 24 March 2005, the UN establish the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS)  Main goal is to support the Peace Agreement signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement on 9 January 2005  Also, to perform humanitarian assistance and protect human rights

20 UNITED NATIONS  The UNMIS consists of up to 10,000 military personnel, including 750 military observers, and up to 715 police  On 31 August 2006 the UNMIS was expanded to include the Darfur region and to carry out the Darfur Peace Agreement


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