Presentation on theme: "The Situation in Darfur Global Classrooms 3 ESO Global Classrooms 3 ESO."— Presentation transcript:
The Situation in Darfur Global Classrooms 3 ESO Global Classrooms 3 ESO
Where is Darfur? Darfur is a REGION in the country of SUDAN in AFRICADarfur is a REGION in the country of SUDAN in AFRICA Darfur is about the size of France
Brief History of Sudan The Sudan became an independent country from the United Kingdom and Egypt in 1956 The country has always been divided between the Arab North and African Christian and Animist South. (Under the UK, they were two separate colonies) The Sudanese government is run by Arab Muslims, and it is in the northern capital city of Khartoum Population (about 40 million) is 70% Muslim, 5% Christian, 25% Indigenous religions Population is 52% black, 39% Arab, 6% Beja 2% foreigners, 1% other
History, continued The Civil War ended in 2005 under the following conditions: -the North and South will share oil profits (the main source of Sudan’s wealth) -the South will be autonomous for 6 years, and then vote on independence -Khartoum cannot force the South to obey Islamic law (Shariah), southerners must vote on it in elected assemblies There was a brutal civil war between the North and South from 1955-1972 and again from 1983-2005 (estimated 2 million deaths)
So what’s the problem in Darfur? Many Darfurians felt the Sudanese government was oppressive and was not supporting the region because Darfurians are not Arabs Rebel groups took advantage of the chaos of the civil war and started attacking military and government targets The government responded by supporting militias that started attacking civilians and villages in Darfur
A Humanitarian Crisis -Destruction of villages, mass killing, rape, child abduction -Between 200,000 and 400,000 people killed (UN estimate; the Sudanese government insists it is about 9,000) -Drought, desertification, and lack of clean water increase devestating effect of the situation through disease and malnutrition. This is part of the cause of the conflict (only 6.8% of Sudan is arable land, 60% of Darfurians are farmers, the rest are herders) -Conflict threatens to spread into neighboring countries (especcially Chad where there are many refugee camps) and possibly reignite the North-South Civil War
Refugee Problem Nearly 2 million people have been displaced
Refugee camps are overcrowded and often lack adequate resources and sanitation, and are not always protected from outside attacks International aid organizations have difficulty getting food and medicine to the camps because of how dangerous it is to travel through some areas
Who are the main players? Sudanese Government: It insists it does not support human rights abuses or militias that attack villages Militias: the most feared militia is known as the Janjaweed, made up of members of local tribes Darfur rebel groups: these groups are not united, but the main groups are the the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (Jem). Some want independence, other want better treatment by the government. Rebel groups are not innocent of human rights abuses either. Darfur Civilians Foreign Governments and International Organizations
What has been the international response? Human Rights groups like Amnesty International have urged the UN and governments to take action by sending humanitarian and military aid and sanctioning the Sudanese government The UN World Food Programme and other aid organizations have been sending humanitiarian aid to camps since 2004 The African Union has sent about 7,000 peacekeeping troops to Darfur, but they are often poorly armed and lack logistical support, and have been unable to stop the violence.
Many people are calling the situation “genocide”
Timeline of UN Action 2004: Resolution 1547 established a “special observer mission” to Sudan to improve contact between the government and rebels. Also sent aid through World Food Programme. 2005: UN Mission sent to see if genocide was really occurring. The mission decided this could not be called a genocide, but called for human rights abusers to be tried for war crimes. 2006: Peace agreement signed between one rebel group and the government, but the government has not disarmed the janjaweed and the violence has actually increased.
2007: President Bush called situation genocide and threatened sanctions on Sudanese gov; soon after, the Sudanese government agreed to a UN peacekeeping force of 26,000 to join African Union troops starting Jan 1, 2008. However, the Sudanese government is obstructing preparation efforts. Peace talks currently underway in Libya, though many rebel leaders refuse to participate and a supposed ceasefire is not holding.
Questions about Darfur Is the situation in Darfur genocide? Do other countries have a right to interfere in Darfur? What is the best way to achieve peace in the region? What kind of action should be taken? Who, if anyone, should be held responsible for human rights abuses? Is the situation in Darfur genocide? Do other countries have a right to interfere in Darfur? What is the best way to achieve peace in the region? What kind of action should be taken? Who, if anyone, should be held responsible for human rights abuses?