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The Age of Imperialism Chapter Eleven Imperialism: Nigeria Section Two.

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1 The Age of Imperialism Chapter Eleven Imperialism: Nigeria Section Two

2 A New Period of Imperialism The European imperialism of the 18 th and 19 th centuries demanded more influence over the economic, political, and social lives of the people in the conquered lands. Europe wanted to shape the economies of these lands to benefit European economies. They also wanted the people to adopt European customs.

3 Forms of Control Four Forms of Colonial Control: 1. Colony 2. Protectorate 3. Sphere of Influence 4. Economic Imperialism See chart on pg. 346 for details.

4 Methods of Management 1. Indirect Control 2. Direct Control See chart on pg. 346 for details. Paternalism- governing people by providing for their needs, but not giving them any rights. Assimilation- to adopt the culture of the governing power.

5 Nigeria: A British Colony (Gaining Control) Both diplomacy and force were used to gain control of southern Nigeria. Some local tribes signed treaties with the British, agreeing to British protection and allowing British citizens to settle. Other tribes opposed foreign intervention and rebelled. These rebellions were put down. Northern Nigeria was conquered by the Royal Niger Company. The Berlin Conference gave control of the palm oil trade and the entire Niger River delta to the British. By 1914 all of Nigeria was under British rule.

6 Managing the Colony Nigeria was a very diverse region. The British found it difficult to govern its peoples. Over 250 different ethnic groups lived there. The three largest were: 1. Hausa-Fulani – North, Muslim, strong central government. 2. Yoruba – Southwest, traditional beliefs, local chiefs 3. Igbo – Southeast, traditional beliefs, local chiefs Britain lacked the necessary troops to govern the area. Britain turned to the concept of indirect rule of the land. This worked well with the Hausa-Fulani, but failed to work with the different chiefs of the other two major groups.

7 African Resistance As in Nigeria, Africans across the continent resisted European attempts to colonize their lands. Europeans almost always put down this resistance due to their superior arms.

8 Unsuccessful Movements 1. Algerias 50 year active resistance of French rule 2. West African active resistance led by Samori Toure against the French 3. German East African religious resistance through maji-maji water. (see pg. 348) This resistance movement cost over 150,000 African lives.

9 Ethiopia: A Successful Resistance This is the only African nation to successfully challenge European rule. Menelik II became emperor of Ethiopia in He successfully played the European powers, vying for control of his kingdom, against each other. When the Italians tried to claim all of Ethiopia as their protectorate, he declared war. In 1896, at the Battle of Adowa, the Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians. Menelik had used stockpiled modern weapons against them and kept these to ensure Ethiopias independence in the future.

10 The Legacy of Colonial Rule: Negative Effects 1. Africans lost control of their land and their independence. 2. Many Africans died of new diseases. 3. Many thousands of African lives were lost in resisting the Europeans. 4. Famines resulted from the change to cash crops in place of subsistence agriculture. 5. Africans suffered a breakdown of their traditional cultures. 6. Africans lost their homes and property in many cases. 7. The division of the African continent forced long term rival chiefdoms to unite, while at the same time forced kinship groups to split up. These boundaries haunt Africa to this day.

11 The Legacy of Colonial Rule: Positive Effects 1. Colonialism reduced local warfare. 2. Humanitarian efforts in some colonies improved sanitation and created hospitals and schools. 3. Life-spans and literacy rates increased. 4. African products began to gain value on the international market. 5. Railroads, dams, and telephone lines were built in African colonies.

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