Presentation on theme: "What is Genocide? "Genocide," a term used to describe violence against members of a national, ethical, racial or religious group with the intent to destroy."— Presentation transcript:
What is Genocide? "Genocide," a term used to describe violence against members of a national, ethical, racial or religious group with the intent to destroy the entire group, came into general usage only after World War II, when the full extent of the atrocities committed by the Nazi regime against the Jews of Europe. In 1948, the United Nations declared genocide to be an international crime;. An international treaty signed by some 120 countries in 1998 established the International Criminal Court (ICC), which has jurisdiction to prosecute crimes of genocide.
Sudan is has the largest land area of any country in Africa (not the biggest population but the biggest land area). Large parts of the country are in the Sahara desert. In the western and southern parts of the country are three other ethnic groups: the Fur, the Masalit, and the Zaghawa. These three groups are typically darker skinned. They are also generally Christian while the Arabs are Muslim. The area where these darker skinned, Christian Sudanese live is called Darfur. There are many different ethnic groups living in Sudan. In the northern parts of the country are ethnic Arabs, people who came to Sudan as part of the Muslim Empire during the medieval period of history. Arabs typically have lighter skin than most Africans.
Origins of the Conflict: Since the end of imperialism, Sudan has had a series of military dictators. The darker skinned, Christian people in Sudan have felt for a long time that the government was giving better treatment (jobs, money, protection, healthcare) to the lighter skinned Arabs in the northern parts of the country. In 2003 two groups of the darker skinned Sudanese grew angry for this reason and attacked government troops. The government responded by attacking the darker skinned communities.
The Janjaweed: In its attacks, the government helped organize and equip (with weapons) a militia of Arabs called the Janjaweed. The Janjaweed began attacking the rebels who had attacked the government. This was the job the Sudanese government asked it to do. However, the Janjaweed has continued attacking the darker skinned communities. It is currently trying to rid the country of Fur, Masalit, and Zaghawa people. The Janjaweed ride into villages on camels and horses, kill the men, rape the women, and steal the towns valuables.
The Sudanese government says that is does not support the Janjaweed. It calls the group a bunch of thieves. However, the government did initially give the group its weapons, and many people claim to have seen the governments army and police officers watch the Janjaweed attack villages in Darfur. The government says that it does not control or support the Janjaweed, but many world leaders believe that the government is lying. What do you think?
3 Drivers Of the Conflict In Darfur Ethnicity Where you live as well as the color of your skin can determine how you are treated. This philosophy creates a caste system that has led to the horrific treatment of the people in southwest Sudan (Darfur) Oil Oil has a history of being the focal point of international conflict. Youll learn more as you study the middle East. People compete for the control of oil. With oil comes money, with money comes influence and/or power. In the case of Sudan, there are large deposits of oil in the south, yet the port by which it is shipped is in the north. Although the oil is pumped in the south, because it is shipped in the north, the north receives the payments and that wealth has a lot to do with how the north holds the power, Desertification Put simply, because of desertification and the destruction that comes with war, there is no longer enough arable land and water for farmers and herders to continue existing as they have historically. There are no longer enough resources to go around.
International Reaction: So far the world community has done very little to help people suffering in Darfur. A number of African countries have given a small number of troops in an effort to stop the genocide. The United States has given some money and supplies to these troops, but we have not added any troops of our own. Other European countries have also done very little. The genocide in Darfur is going on right now: already over 180,000 people in Darfur have been murdered by the Janjaweed. What do you think the United States should do?
Activity Directions: Imagine that you are president of the United States. What should the United States do about the genocide taking place in Sudan? _____________________________________________________________________________________