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Independence of © 2014 Brain Wrinkles Political, Economic, & Social Conflicts
Standards SS7CG2 The student will explain the structures of the modern governments of Africa. b. Explain how political, economic, and social conflicts resulted in the independence of South Sudan. © 2014 Brain Wrinkles
Sudan Before 2011
Great Britain established colonial rule of the region (Sudan) in the 19 th century. In 1924, the British divided the region into two territories: the Arabic-speaking Muslim north, and the mostly English-speaking Christian and Animist south. © 2014 Brain Wrinkles
The northern region is home to mainly Arab- speaking Muslims. But in the southern region, there is no dominate culture. The Dinka and Nuer are the largest of nearly 200 ethnic groups.
In the 1940s, Great Britain merged the two areas together to be one nation with a northern government and Arabic as the official language. Southern Sudan was shut out of the new government. © 2014 Brain Wrinkles
The South felt discriminated against because the government was based in the Northern city of Khartoum.
© 2014 Brain Wrinkles Khartoum
In 1956, Sudan gained its independence from Great Britain, but there was still a lot of tension between the north and south. South Sudanese were not happy with northern rule. © 2014 Brain Wrinkles
Sudan’s flag raised at its independence ceremony in 1956.
The first of Sudan’s two civil wars broke out in 1955 and lasted until The two sides finally settled on a peace agreement that lasted for 10 years. © 2014 Brain Wrinkles
Fighting began again when the northern government established Islamic law throughout the country. Southerners were angered at attempts to impose Islamic law on the whole country. © 2014 Brain Wrinkles
Civil war had been going on between the North and South for most of Sudan’s history. Dictator Omar al-Bashir seized power in 1989 and continued to impose radical Islamic law. © 2014 Brain Wrinkles
20+ years of fighting have led to the displacement of over 4 million people and the deaths of 1.5 million.
© 2014 Brain Wrinkles
In 2005, the northern and southern parts of Sudan signed a peace accord. This allowed the South to rule itself for six years and then vote in a referendum for independence. In January 2011, nearly 99% of South Sudanese voters called for independence. © 2014 Brain Wrinkles
South Sudan became an independent country on July 9, 2011.
© 2014 Brain Wrinkles
Salva Kiir Mayardit, the first President of South Sudan. (His trademark hat was a gift from former US President George W. Bush.)
Unfortunately, there are still problems between the two countries. Sudan and South Sudan are tied economically by oil. Most of the oil reserves are in South Sudan, but the factories, pipelines, shipping ports, etc., are in Sudan. © 2014 Brain Wrinkles
The region exports billions of dollars of oil per year. Southern states produce more than 80% of it, but receive only 50% of the profits, causing tensions between the two countries.
Both countries continue to disagree on how to divide oil wealth and settling border disputes. Negotiating a deal is critical to both countries’ peace in the future. © 2014 Brain Wrinkles
In December 2013, a political power struggle broke out between President Kiir and his ex-deputy Riek Machar. This has caused a civil war between the major ethnic groups within the country. Up to 10,000 people are estimated to have been killed. More than 800,000 people have been displaced inside South Sudan and more than 250,000 people have fled to neighboring countries as a result of the conflict. © 2014 Brain Wrinkles
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