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TAIL WHEEL CONVERSION DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A typical tricycle undercarriage and a tailwheel aircraft.

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Presentation on theme: "TAIL WHEEL CONVERSION DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A typical tricycle undercarriage and a tailwheel aircraft."— Presentation transcript:

1 TAIL WHEEL CONVERSION DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A typical tricycle undercarriage and a tailwheel aircraft

2 C152DIFFERENCESBIPLANE NOSE WHEELSTEERINGTAIL WHEEL AHEAD OF M/GC/G WEIGHTREAR OF M/G SIDE BY SIDESEATINGTANDEM RIGHT HANDTHROTTLELEFT HAND YOKE / PANELPITCH & ROLLSTICK / FLOOR TOEBRAKESHEEL GOODVISIBILITYPOOR

3 TAXIING A TAILDRAGGER P1 IN REAR SEAT NOSE HIGH ATTITUDE PAX HEAD OBSCURING VISION WEAVE LEFT LOOK RIGHT WEAVE RIGHT LOOK LEFT VERY SMALL CONTACT AREA OF TAILWHEEL :- INEFFICIENT STEERING, USE RUDDER AND SLIPSTREAM STRONG SUDDEN BRAKING COULD CAUSE NOSE TO TIP OVER LEADING TO PROP STRIKE, CONTROL TAXI SPEED

4 STEERING AND BRAKING STEERING IS DONE WITH TOES BRAKING IS DONE WITH HEELS IF BRAKE APPLIED TOO HARSHLY, TAILWHEEL CASTORS, MAY RESULT IN GROUND LOOP

5 EFFECT OF WIND LET “JOYSTICK BE BLOWN BY WIND” BIPLANE HAS 4 AILERONS ! DUE LIGHT TAIL, HEAVY NOSE, WHEN SLIPSTREAM STRONGER THAN WIND, HOLD TAIL DOWN

6 TAKE OFF, TORQUE AS POWER IS APPLIED, NEWTONS 3 RD LAW: EVERY FORCE HAS AN EQUAL AND OPPOSITE REACTION. TORQUE WILL CAUSE LEFT WHEEL TO DIG IN THUS VEER LEFT

7 TAKE OFF, SLIPSTREAM SLIPSTREAM WILL CAUSE LEFT YAW ENERGISES THE RUDDER AND ELEVATOR AS SPEED INCREASES THESE EFFECTS ARE SIMILAR TO A NOSEWHEEL A/C

8 TAKE OFF, ASYMETRIC BLADE EFFECT ASYMETRIC BLADE EFFECT WILL CAUSE LEFT YAW AS MORE LIFT IS GENERATED ON DOWNGOING BLADE DUE LARGER ALPHA THIS EFFECT INCREASES AS A/C ACCELERATES!

9 TAKE OFF, PROPELLER PRECESSION PROPELLER PRECESSION WILL CAUSE LEFT YAW IN A CLOCKWISE ROTATION. SMOOTH PITCH FWD, NOT A JERK FWD! WHEN TAIL IS LIFTED, FEW SECONDS OF POOR DIRECTIONAL STABILITY EXPERIENCED!

10 TAKE OFF, CROSS WIND IF LEFT CROSS WIND, MORE RISK OF WEATHER COCKING LEFT DUE TO VERTICAL SIDE AREA OF FUSELAGE AND FIN

11 TAKE OFF, TENDENCY TO SWING ALL THE FACTORS MENTIONED EARLIER MAKE THE TAILDRAGGER MORE PRONE TO SWINGING LEFT ON TAKEOFF

12 OPEN POWER SMOOTHLY HOLD STICK SLIGHTLY BACK TO KEEP TAILWHEEL ON GROUND FOR STEERING CONTROL USE RUDDER TO CHECK YAW USE SIDES OF RUNWAY TO MAINTAIN CENTRELINE BEWARE OF USING HEEL BRAKE WITH RUDDER ON TAKE OFF ROLL LIFT TAIL OFF GROUND TO ACCELERATE STICK BACK FOR TAKE OFF AT CORRECT SPEED Yikes!

13 INFLIGHT OPEN COCKPIT CORRECT CLOTHING FOR PILOT / PAX NOISE WIND CRAMPED COCKPIT BEWARE MAPS FLYING OUT !

14 INFLIGHT / CIRCUIT OVAL SHAPED CIRCUIT DUE POOR FORWARD VISIBILITY FROM COCKPIT CLOSER TO RUNWAY THAN IN A HIGH WING CESSNA TO ENABLE CURVING DOWNWIND / BASELEG / FINAL APPROACH

15 APPROACH WHEN DOWNWIND ASSESS YOUR DESCENT PATH IN A CURVING APPROACH IF PITCHED DOWN TO VIEW AHEAD, SPEED WILL BUILD UP THUS MAKE A SLIPPING TURN FROM DOWNWIND THROUGH BASE TO FINAL APPROACH

16 HOLD OFF & TOUCHDOWN WHEN 20’ ABOVE RUNWAY WINGS LEVEL, ROUND OUT LOOK TO RUNWAY EDGES FOR ALIGNMENT HOLD LEVEL FLYING ATTITUDE BEGIN RAISING NOSE AS SPEED BLEEDS OFF TOUCHDOWN IN 3 POINT ATTITUDE HOLD STICK BACK

17 TOUCHDOWN

18 @ LONDON AIRSPORTS CENTRE WHAT CAN GO WRONG & WHY BOUNCE DUE BUNGEE LEADS TO LEAP IN AIR WITH NO AIRSPEED

19 BOUNCE / BALLOON 3 POINT LANDING WITH HIGH RATE OF DESCENT AND NO AIRSPEED WILL RESULT IN A BOUNCE FLAT ATTITUDE WITH TOO MUCH SPEED WILL RESULT IN A BALLOON IF SUFFICIENT RUNWAY AHEAD, APPLY POWER, MAINTAIN STRAIGHT LINE AND HEIGHT REMAKE THE LANDING

20 CROSS WIND LANDING KEEP INTO WIND WING LOW TOUCHDOWN ON ONE WHEEL IN LEVEL FLYING ATTITUDE AFTER TOUCHDOWN, HOLD STICK FORWARD TO KEEP LEVEL AS SPEED BLEEDS OFF, TAIL WILL COME DOWN

21 WHY TAILDRAGGERS SEEM SO HARD TO LAND CG IS BEHIND MAIN WHEELS WHEN MAIN WHEEL TOUCHES THE GROUND, AIRCRAFT DECELERATES CG KEEPS GOING AHEAD AND PIVOTS AROUND THE WHEEL CAUSING PLANE TO GROUND LOOP

22 CG SWINGS THE TAIL

23 EFFECTS ON TAILDRAGGER DURING LANDING WHEN YOU PITCH UP TO LAND, PROPELLOR “P” EFFECT CAUSES A/C TO YAW RIGHT REDUCING RPM CAUSES LOSS OF RUDDER AND ELEVATOR EFFECTIVENESS JUST WHEN YOU NEED IT MOST! FUSELAGE BLANKS OFF RUDDER AND ELEVATOR AS YOU ROUNDOUT FURTHER REDUCING EFFECTIVENESS TAILWHEEL HAS ONLY 2 INCHES SQUARE GROUND CONTACT SURFACE AREA, THUS NO STEERING ABILITY UNTIL WEIGHT OF TAIL IS ON IT.

24 @ LONDON AIRSPORTS CENTRE VERY DRAGGY PLANE DUE TO LARGE FRONTAL AREA, ON ROUNDOUT THERE IS A LARGE INCREASE OF DRAG AND THUS LOSS OF AIRSPEED THE ROUND OUT AND FLARE HAVE TO BE DONE AT JUST THE RIGHT HEIGHT, SPEED & TIME IF LOW WING TOUCHES GROUND, BEST CLOSE THROTTLE, SWITCH ENGINE OFF AND ALLOW GROUND LOOP TO COMPLETELY STOP THE AIRCRAFT

25 GO AROUND AT DECISION HEIGHT OF 20 FEET, IF YOU DECIDE TO GO AROUND, SMOOTHLY APPLY FULL POWER, EXPECT CHANGES IN PITCH, YAW AND ROLL AND “P” EFFECT CHECK WITH RUDDER AND AILERON CLIMB AT SAFE SPEED AND SAFE ATTITUDE TOO STEEP SHALLOW CLIMB

26 SUMMARY WEAVE FOR TAXI CARE OPENING POWER DUE ADDITIONAL EFFECTS ASYMETRIC BLADE EFFECT GYRO EFFECT OF PROP WHEN PITCHING TAIL AT TAKEOFF AND AT LANDING POOR FWD VIS STAY CLOSE IN CIRCUIT WITH OVAL SHAPE CURVING BASE TO FINAL REDUCING VIS. AT ROUND OUT AND FLARE GYROSCOPIC EFFECT OF PROPELLOR ON LANDING! LARGE INCREASE IN DRAG AT FLARE TIMING MUST BE RIGHT POOR STEERING ON GROUND DUE SMALL TAIL WHEEL CONTACT AREA SLOW TAXI SPEED AND LOW POWER SETTINGS WEAVE FOR TAXI

27 FANTASTIC FUN TO FLY! EXCITING, OPEN COCKPIT, VERY STRONG CONSTRUCTION, EASY TO HANDLE IN THE AIR, ALWAYS DRAWS A CROWD.


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