Presentation on theme: "War Communism Trotsky leads Red Army over Whites Lenins NEP Compromise w/ capitalism Trotsky vs. Stalin Lenins death leads to a struggle for power Troika-"— Presentation transcript:
War Communism Trotsky leads Red Army over Whites Lenins NEP Compromise w/ capitalism Trotsky vs. Stalin Lenins death leads to a struggle for power Troika- Stalin, Kamenev & Zinoviev Lenins final letter Stalin is too rude The 3 rd International Comintern- divides the political left in Eur Women & Family in the early USSR Women were more liberated- Perception more than reality USSR in the 1920s & 1930s -France -Little Entente & Reparations -Great Britain -1 st Labour Govt -General Strike of Home Rule -Successor States -Poland-Pilsudski -Czechoslavakia- democratic -Hungary- Bela Kun/then reaction -Austria-fighting on left & right -Southeastern Europe- dictatorships Began with involved - Weimar Republic -Sparticists -Invasion of Ruhr -Inflation of 23 -Beer Hall Putsch -Dawes Plan -Stresemann Years -Locarno -Financial Tailspin -Crash of 29 -End of reparations -Agricultural collapse Great Depression in the Democracies Britain- National Govt France- Popular Front Fascism in Italy Mussolini leads right wing group to combat the political left March on Rome Lateran Accords Joyless Victors The Soviet Experiment Totalitarian States- Germany, Italy & the USSR -Nazi Seizure of Power -Depression leads to discontent -Hitler comes to power -Enabling Act -Night of the Long Knives -Politce State -Nuremburg Laws Italian Fascist Economics Corporatism Stalins Soviet Union End of NEP Collectivization 5 Yr. Plans Great Purges Weimar Republic &The Great Depression Fascism/ Joyless Victors & E. Europe Political Experiments of the 1920s & 1930s
The Soviet Experiment: War Communism under Trotsky NEP under Lenin Trotsky & Stalin compete for power Trotsky: Internationalism Stalin: Socialism in One Country Collectivization 5 Year Plans Great Purges Joyless Victors: France Reparations Little Entente Popular Front Britain Labour Party General Strike Irish Home Rule National Govt France Britain Germany Czechoslavakia Romania Yugoslavia Little Entente Germany: Weimar Rep Spartacist Kapp Putsch Inflation Beer Hall Stresemann Nazis Reichstag Fire Enabling Act Nuremburg Laws Kristalnacht Poland Allied with France, but was a military dictatorship Italy Italy: Mussolini & Blackshirts March on Rome Lateran Accords/Corporatism Ireland Russia (Soviet Union):
Czarist Rule Backwardness Revolution of 1905 World War I March Revolution November Revolution Russian Civil War Introduction to the film: Stalin
When Russia withdrew from World War I, a civil war broke out.
Over 15 million Russians die during the Civil War… Russia would have a difficult time trusting the Allies again… American and Allied forces invade and occupy much of Russia
The Russian Civil War
War Communism The NEP Stalin vs. Trotsky The 3rd International Women & Family
The Red Army suppresses internal and foreign opposition Defeat of the White Army Govt runs major industries and seizes peasant grain By facing major opposition from strikes to military mutiny Propaganda Poster
Realizing Russia never experienced the Capitalist stage- Lenin compromises w/ Capitalism Allows small scale business Peasant ownership of land (Kulaks prosper) Small Business thriving
Lenin suffers from a series of strokes (unable to lead) Two Factions Emerge Left Wing Stalin- General Secretary Socialism in One Country Zinoviev & Kamenev 3 Man Troika Right Wing Trotsky International Revolution Urged rapid industrialization Collectivization of agriculture Open party debate Trotsky forced out of Politburo (1926) Exiled in 1929/Murdered in 1940
Josef Stalin Lev Kamenev Grigory Zinoviev
The Creation of the Comintern Officially separated Socialist and Communist Parties Forced socialist parties to acknowledge Moscows leadership Take the Communist name Refuse to support parliamentary policies Right Wing Fascists - Aided by political divisions Soviet Sculpture dedicated To the 3rd International
Communist Views toward women were both traditional and progressive Alexandra Kollontai Communism and the Family Misrepresentation of real views in USSR Divorce easier Abortion legal Women able to hold high gov positions- Alexandra Kollontai
The Rise of Fascism
Italy had suffered greatly and gained little. Economy very weak even before the war relied heavily upon small family agriculture 40% of the countrys GNP in Many of the social, political, and economic problems that plagued the country after WW1 could not be blamed solely on the war.
Growing discontent over troubled economy Italian public looked to the parties that offered the most reasonable solutions. Strengthened by universal suffrage & proportional representation in Parliament Socialists doubled seats Chamber of Deputies in The new Catholic Peoples Party gained representation. Socialists had little faith in the democracy & longed wanted it gone Catholic Peoples Party mixed conservative religious ideals with political moderation. No strong majority coalition emerged & the Parliament elected in 1921 which left the country vulnerable to the fascists
During , Italys Premier was Giovanni Giolitti, pre-war figure who had dominated Italian politics between 1901 and Tried to resolve Italys international conflicts but stayed aloof of the domestic conflicts Made the country's problems worse. Socialists took advantage of this atmosphere and promoted a series of strikes and other labor unrest in August and September of The unrest became violent and divided the country and the Socialist Party. Giolitti let the strikes run their course and worked successfully to lower the governments deficit by 50%.
Benito Mussolini, named by his Socialist father after the Mexican revolutionary Benito Juarez, was born in Former teacher Moved to Switzerland to avoid military service but returned and became active in Socialist politics. In 1912 he became editor of the Partys newspaper, Avanti. Several months after the outbreak of the World War, he broke with the Socialist Party over involvement in the war he began to espouse nationalistic ideas that became the nucleus of his fascist movement. Fired as editor of Avanti
Mussolini was drafted into military service in 1915 and was badly wounded two years later. After recuperating, he went back to writing his newspaper, where he blended his ideas of socialism and nationalism. Following the war, he formed the Fascio di Combattmento (Union of Combat) in Milan on March 23, Initially, Mussolini had few followers but as the fear of socialism spread, he gained support. Italians started to believe that only Mussolini could bring stability and prosperity back to Italy.
Fascisms most significant growth came in the midst of the Socialist unrest in Strengthened by large contributions from wealthy industrialists, Mussolini's blackshirts attacked Socialists, communists, and eventually the government itself. Mussolini's followers won 35 seats in the legislative elections in May 1921, and toppled the Giolitti cabinet. The center of Fascist strength was in the streets of northern Italy, which Mussolini's followers, through violence, came to control. Mussolini now transformed his movement into the Fascist Party, dropped his socialist views began to emphasize Italian nationalism.
In 1922, the Fascists gained control of the cities of Milan and Bologna. In response Socialist leaders called for nationwide strikes, which Mussolini and his followers put down in less than 24 hours. On October 24, 1922, Mussolini told followers that if he was not given power, he would March on Rome. Three days later Fascists gained control of several more cities. The government attempted to declare martial law, but King Victor Emmanuel III would not approve it. On October 29, the king asked Mussolini to form a new government as Premier of Italy. Mussolinis March on Rome
Mussolini built a government made up of a number of sympathetic parties. Mussolini formed a coalition cabinet that included all major parties except the Communists and the Socialists. He assured the Chamber of Deputies that his government intended to respect personal liberties but with dignity and firmness…, His government was approved by a 306 to 116 vote and 9 days later the Chamber granted him quasi- dictatorial powers for a year.
In violence marred elections on April 6, 1924, the Fascists gained 60% of the popular vote and two-thirds of the Chambers seats. The Socialist leader and member of the Chamber, Giacomo Matteotti attacked the Fascists for their strong- arm tactics during the election. Several days later, Fascists supporters kidnapped and murdered him. Italy was stunned by this event, and Mussolini was vulnerable but Victor Emmanuel refused to dismiss him form office. Giacomo Matteotti
On Jan. 5, 1925, Mussolini accepted responsibility for events of the past year. What followed however, was a reign of terror that eliminated many of his opponents. Throughout the rest of 1925 and 1926, Mussolini will continue to expand his power, gradually taking over the reigns of the government from the Chamber. An unsuccessful assassination attempt, prompted the formation of the Law for the Defense of the State, which established a special court to deal with political crimes.
In December, 1922, Mussolini created a Grand Council of Fascism made up of the Partys principle leaders. By 1928, the Grand Council became the most important organ of government in Italy. The structure of the Fascist Party did not reach final form until November 12, It was defined as a Civil militia with the Duce (Mussolini) as its head. The Fascists took over complete control of the government as well as many youth organizations in Italy Giovane Italiane (girls 12 and up) Avanguardisti (boys 14-18) Avanguardisti
The Fascist state and Catholic Church agreement Fascist state paid Church for lost land from 1871 Paid in Govt. bonds Gave Pope Vatican City Church feared communism more than fascism Church support Fascist state Mussolini and Pius IX sign the Lateran Accords
Human losses in the war a population growth slowdown that had begun in the mid-19 th century. Third Republic political life and foreign policy reflects a country ruled by an aging leadership that sought comfort in its rich past. Post World War I, France changes politically and culturally. Pessimistic Literature Erich Maria Remarque Jean Paul Sartre Albert Camus Oswald Spengler Dada Marcel Duchamp
Election of November 1919 momentary shift rightward w/ the moderate-conservatives winning almost 2/3 of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Replaces Clemenceau by Premier Alexandre Millerand, was a coalition known as the Bloc national. Aristide Briand replaced Millerand in January of 1921, but was removed a year later because of lack of firmness on the German reparations question and was succeeded by Raymond Poincare.
France had borrowed heavily during the war and spent great sums afterwards to rebuild its devastated economy. Unfortunately, it relied on German reparations to fund many of these costs. Problems with these repayments created a financial crisis that saw the French public debt increase accompanied by a steady decline in the value of the franc.
Growing Franco-German differences over Germanys willingness to meet its debt payments created friction between both countries and toppled the government of Aritide Briand. In December, 1922, Poincare declared Germany in default on its reparations payments. In January, France and Belgium occupied the Ruhr. Efforts to obtain payments in kind via Franco-Belgium operation of the Ruhrs mines and factories failed because of passive resistance by German workers in the area. The Ruhrs occupiers gained little more financially in payments than they had through normal means, and found the cost of occupation expensive. The French government raised taxes 20%.
Poincares Ruhr occupation policy had divided French voters, while tax increases helped defeat the Bloc National in the May, 1924 elections. A Radical/Socialist coalition, the Cartel des Gauches had majority control of the Chamber. It selected, Edouard Herriot, a Radical leader, as Premier. Frances ailing economy was plagued by a declining France and inflation. Herriot was removed from office due to his lack of success in invigorating the French economy.
Briand, dominated French foreign policy until Briand pursued a policy of reconciliation with Germany and better relations with Europes other pariah, the U.S.S.R. France granted diplomatic recognition to Soviet Russia in 1924 despite problems relations quickly worsened because of the difficulty in obtaining tsarist debt Soviets use of their Paris embassy for espionage activities.
Biggest domestic problem of the Carte des Gauches declining franc by 1926 was only worth one- tenth of its prewar value. Its fall caused a political crisis so severe that the country had six cabinets over a nine month period. Consequently, on July 15, 1926, Briand resigned his premiership succeeded by Poincare & forms Union National cabinet that had six former premiers in it. This move was backed by several different factions in France.
To resolve the franc problem, the chamber granted Poincare special authority. Over the next two years, he dramatically raised taxes and was able to get capital that had been taken out of the country reinvested in government bonds or other areas of the economy. By 1928, the franc had risen to 20% of its prewar value, and Poincare was considered a financial miracle worker. Unfortunately, the political and psychological scars left by the crisis would haunt France for two more decades.
England had a set of problems unique to its status as a nation absolutely dependent upon trade and commerce for its economic well-being. With the war at an end, the Coalition government of David Lloyd George held the first parliamentary elections since Known as the Coupon or khaki elections, the question of victory, the nature of the settlement with Germany, and the Prime Minister himself were the election's burning issues. Before the election was held, the Peoples Act granted women over 30 the right to vote. George and his Conservative Party won by a landslide. David Lloyd George
Afterwards, England enjoyed an economic boom fueled by government policies and economic production based on pre-war conditions. Unfortunately, government retrenchment, blended with tax increases and over production resulted in a severe recession, by the end of It began in 1920 with almost 700,000 unemployed by the end of that year and jumped to 2 million within months. Until the Depression, unemployment averaged 12% annually. This resulted in the passage of the Unemployment Insurance Acts of 1920 and 1922 and the construction of 200,000 subsidized housing units.
These problems caused the Conservatives to withdraw from Lloyd Georges coalition. Andrew Bonar-Law replaced him as head of a new Conservative government, though ill health forced him to resign in 1923, followed briefly by Stanley Baldwin. Continued unemployment and labor problems coupled with a decline to adopt more protectionistic trade policies resulted in a significant drop in support for the Conservatives in the elections of November, Baldwin resigned, followed in office by Ramsey MacDonald, head of the Labour Party. His party only lasted nine months, and fell principally because of his efforts to establish formal ties with Russia.
Baldwin will return as Prime Minister in The year saw an economic turnaround with increases in both wages and prices. Baldwin was able to control various labor strikes during the mid 20s. In 1927 he supported the passage of the Trade Union Act, which outlawed various forms of strikes. Baldwins government also passed social legislation such as the Widows, Orphans, and Old Age Pensions Act in In foreign affairs, Baldwin cancelled the 1924 commercial agreement with the Soviet Union.
Europe in 1919
From the German Point of View Lostbut not forgotten country. Into the heart You are to dig yourself these words as into stone: Which we have lost may not be truly lost!
Maimed German WW I Veteran
The Stabbed-in-the-Back Theory Disgruntled German WWI veterans
German Revolutions 
The Spartacist League Rosa Luxemburg [ ] murdered by the Freikorps German communists attempt to take over Berlin & Germany Friekorps- former WWI vets put down rebellion with ruthless force
Friedrich Ebert: First President of the Weimar Republic
The German Government:
The German Mark
The French in the Ruhr: 1923
The French Occupation of the Ruhr
The Beer Hall Putsch: 1923
The Beer Hall Putsch Idealized
Hitler in Landesberg Prison
Mein Kampf [My Struggle]
European Debts to the United States
The Dawes Plan (1924)
The Young Plan (1930) For three generations, youll have to slave away! $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years. For three generations, youll have to slave away! $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years.
Weimar Germany: Political Representation [ ] Political Parties in the Reichstag May 1924 Dec May 1928 Sep July 1932 Nov Mar Communist Party (KPD) Social Democratic Party (SDP) Catholic Centre Party (BVP) Nationalist Party (DNVP) Nazi Party (NSDAP) Other Parties
League of Nations Members
Washington Naval Conference [ ] U. S. Britain Japan France Italy
The Maginot Line
Locarno Pact: 1925 Gustav Stresemann and Aristide Briand agreements Western border issue settled Germany accepts Western border France agrees not to invade & discuss future issues
Kellogg-Briand Pact: nations committed to outlawing aggression and war for settling disputes. Problem no way of enforcement. 15 nations committed to outlawing aggression and war for settling disputes. Problem no way of enforcement.
George Grosz Grey Day (1921) George Grosz Grey Day (1921) DaDa
George Grosz The Pillars of Society (1926) George Grosz The Pillars of Society (1926) DaDa
Picasso Studio with Plaster Head  Cubism
Georges Braque Still Life LeJeur  Cubism
Girl Before A Mirror Pablo Picasso Picasso Surrealist or Cubist?
"Elle a chaud au cul," meaning, "She has a hot butt." Marcel Duchamp, L.H.O.O.Q., 1919 DADA
Walter Gropius Bauhaus Bldg.  Bauhaus
Required by law to hold elections in 1929, the May 30th contest saw the Conservatives drop to 260 seats, Labour rise to 287, and the Liberals 59. Ramsay MacDonald formed a minority Labour government that would last until The most serious problem facing the country was the Depression, which caused unemployment to reach 1.7 million by 1930 and over 3 million by 1932.
To meet growing budget deficits caused by heavy subsidies to the unemployed, a special government commission recommended budget cuts and tax increases. Cabinet and labor union opposition helped reduce the total for the cuts from 78 million to 22 million. This however did not restore confidence in the government, which fell on August 24, 1931.
The following day, King George VI helped convince MacDonald to return to office as head of a National Coalition cabinet made up of 4 Conservatives, 4 Laborites, and 2 Liberals. The Labour Party refused to recognize the new government and ejected MacDonald and Snowden from the Party. MacDonalds coalition swept the November 1931 general elections winning 554 of 615 seats.
The British government abandoned the gold standard on September 21, 1931 and adopted a series of high tariffs on imports. Unemployment peaked at 3 million in 1932 and dropped to 2 million two years later. In 1931, the British government implemented the Statue of Westminster, which created the British Commonwealth of Nations, granted its members political equality, and freedom to reject any act passed by parliament that related to a Dominion state.
MacDonald resigned his position in June, 1935 because of ill health and was succeeded by Stanley Baldwin, whose conservative coalition won 428 seats in new elections in November. Baldwins coalition government will continue the economic gains made by MacDonalds coalition. Restored industrial production to the pre-Depression level
On July 27, 1929, Poincare resigned as Premier because of ill health. Over the next three years, the dominant figure in French politics was Andre Tardieu, who headed or played a role in Moderate cabinets. Tardieu tried to initiate political changes along American or British lines to create a stable two party system that would help France deal with the world economic crisis. He convinced the Laval government and the Chamber to accept electing its members by a plurality vote, though the Senate rejected it.
In 1930, the government passed Frances most important social welfare legislation, the National Workingman's Insurance Law. It provided various forms of financial aid for illness, retirement, and death. The Depression did not hit France until late 1931, and it took it four years to begin to recover from it. At first, however, the country seemed immune to the Depression and the economy boomed. Depression came later and lasted longer The economy recovered the following year and dropped again through 1935.
Defeat of Moderates returns leftists in the elections of May 1, 1932 reflects concern over the economy and failed efforts of the gov to respond to countrys problems. France remained plagued by differences over economic reform between the Radicals and Socialists. The latter advocated nationalization of major factories, expanded social reforms, and public works programs for the unemployed, while the Radicals sought a reduction in government spending. This instability was also reflected in the fact that there were six Cabinets between June 1932 and February 1934.
The government's inability to deal with the country's economic and political problems saw the emergence of a number of radical groups from across the political spectrum. Some of the more prominent were the Fascist Francistes. The Solidarite Francaise, the Cagoulards, the Parti Populaire Francaise and the Jeunesses Patriotes. Not as radical, through still on the right were the Croix de Feu and the Action Francaise. At the other extreme were the French Communist Party.
Scandal over a bond scheme orchestrated by a small time gangster leads to riots between the political left and right
Leon Blums Left Wing Coalition Made possible by Stalins shift in the Cominterns approach to cooperation w/ other Socialist parties and democratic politics Economic policies Resisted devaluation of the franc
One of the last accomplishments of Stresemann before his death on October 3 was the Young Plan. An altered reparations proposal that required Germany to make yearly payments for 59 years that varied from 1.6 to 2.4 billion Reichsmarks. In return the Allies removed all foreign controls on Germanys economy and agreed to leave the Rhineland the following year. Efforts by the conservative extremists to stop Reichstag adoption failed, while a national referendum on the reactionary bill suffered the same fate.
The Depression had a dramatic effect on the German economy and politics. German exports which had peaked at 13.5 billion marks in 1929, fell to 12 billion marks in 1930 and to 5.7 billion in Imports suffered the same fate, going from 14 billion marks in 1928 to 4.7 billion in The countrys national income dropped 20% during this period, while unemployment rose fro 1.3 million in 1929 to 6 million (43% of the workforce).
The Nazis saw their 1928 vote jump from 800,000 to 6.5 million (18.3% of the vote). Gave them 107 seats in the Reichstag, second only to the Social Democrats with143 seats. Bruenig continued to serve as Chancellor of a weak coalition with the support of Hindenburg and rule by presidential decree. His policies failed to resolve the country's growing economic dilemmas. Use of emergency powers due to party divisions within the Reichstag prevented overriding of emergency decrees
Hindenburgs seven year term of office ended in 1932, and felt he had to run for president again to stop Hitler from gaining the presidency. Hindenburg received 49% of the vote while Hitler gained 30%. Since Hindenburg did not receive a majority of the votes a run-off election was held. Hindenburg 53% / Hitler 37%
On June 1, Bruenig was replaced by Franz von Papen, who headed up an conservative government with the support of Hindenburg in an attempt to keep Hitler from gaining power. New elections were held in July and the Nazis gained 230 Reichstag seats. Hitler was offered a Vice Chancellorship and an opportunity to join a coalition government but he refused. New elections were again held in November, in which the Nazis lost 34 seats while the Communists went from 89 to 120 seats. Von Papen resigned and Kurt von Scheicher, was named Chancellor.
Von Papen joined with Hitler to undermine Schleicher and convinced Hindenburg to appoint Hitler Chancellor and head of a new coalition government. Hitler dissolved the Reichstag and called for new elections in March, Initiated an anti-Communist campaign On Feb. 7, 1933, the Reichstag burned down and Hitler got Hindenburg to issue the Ordinance for the Protection of the German State and Nation. Enabling Act- permitted Hitler to rule by decree Removed all civil and press liberties. When elections were held in March, the Nazis controlled 288 seats.
Within a few weeks, Hitler had complete legislative power and began a policy of Gleichschltung or coordination. An attempt to bring all independent organizations and agencies under his control. All political parties were outlawed or forced to dissolve. July 14 th, the Nazi Party was the only legal party in Germany. Non-Aryan and anti-Nazis were removed from civil service. Strikes were declared illegal and labor unions were dissolved. Finally, the GESTAPO was created on April 24, 1933.
Hitler eliminates his political enemies Disbands the SA Kills off the SA leadership Kills Ernst Roehm Makes his commitment to the German army and in return gains its loyalty
Reversed deflationary policies Restored full employment Instituted massive public works projects autobahns
At the end of 1927, Stalin concerned over problems of grain supply ordered the gradual consolidation of the countrys 25 million small farms, on which 80% of the population lived, into state-run collective farms. According to the First Five Year Plans goals ( ), agricultural output was to rise 150% over five years, and 20% of the countrys private farms transformed into collectives.
In an effort to link agricultural efficiency with heavy industrial developments, Stalin decided by the end of 1929 to rapidly collectivize the countrys entire agricultural system. Because of earlier resistance from peasants between 1927 and 1929, Stalin ordered war against the kulak or middle class peasant class. Some sources claim that as many as 5 million ill-defined kulaks were internally deported during this period.
The deportations along with forced grain seizures, triggered massive, bloody resistance in the country-side. Though half of the nations peasants were forced onto collectives during this period, they destroyed a great deal of Russias livestock in the process. In the spring of 1930, Stalin called a momentary halt to the process, which prompted many peasants to leave the state farms.
Direct and indirect deaths from Stalins collectivization efforts totaled 14.5 million. Grain production levels did not reach 1928 levels until It did, though, break the back of rural peasant independence and created a totalitarian network of control throughout the countryside. It also undercut his own base of political support within the Party.
The industrialization goals of the First Five Year Plan, supported hopefully by a flourishing agricultural system, were to increase total industrial production by 236%, heavy industry by 330%, coal, 200%, electrical output, 400%, and pig- iron production, 300%. Workers were to increase their efforts over 100%. Efficiency was also a hallmark of this program and production costs were to drop by over a third, and prices by a quarter.
In most instances, the Plans unrealistic goals were hard to meet. Regardless, steel production doubled, though it fell short of the Plans goals, as did oil, and hard coal output. Total industrial production, however, did barely surpass the Plans expectations.
The Second Five Year Plan ( ) was adopted by the XVII Party Congress in early Its economic and production targets were less severe than the first Plan, and thus more was achieved. The model for workers was Alexis Stakhanov, a miner who met 1400% of his quota. A Stakhanovite movement arose arose to stimulate workers to greater efforts. By the end of the Second Plan, Soviet Russia had emerged as a leading world industrial power, though at great costs. Gave up quality for quantity. Created tremendous discord with in the USSR
The tremendous upheaval caused by forced collectivization, blended with the remnants of the Rightist conflict with Stalin, prompted the Soviet leader to initiate one of the country's periodic purges of the Party. Approved by the top leadership, suspected opponents were driven from party ranks while Zinoviev and Kamenev was exiled to Siberia. Continued uncertainty over the best policies to follow after the initiation of the Second Five Year Plan ended with the murder at the end of 1934 of Sergei Kirov, Stalins supposed heir, and Leningrad Party chief. Was liberal and a growing threat to Stalins leadership.
In the spring of 1935, the recently renamed and organized secret police, the NKVD, oversaw the beginnings of a new, violent Purge that eradicated 70% of the 1934 Central Committee. A large number of powerful military officers were also eliminated. Stalin sent 8 to 9 million to camps and prisons, and caused untold deaths before the Purges ended in 1938.