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Chapter 9 The Road to Revolution

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1 Chapter 9 The Road to Revolution 1826-1835
Essential Questions Did the change in the government of Mexico justify the rebellion of the Texans? Were the Texans justified in declaring independence from Mexico? Was the Texas Revolution inevitable?

2 The Road to Revolution 1826 The Fredonian Rebellion erupts
1830 Mexico passes Law of April 6, 1830 1832 Colonists and Mexican troops clash at Anahuac 1833 Stephen F. Austin imprisoned 1835 The Battle of Gonzales fought 1835 Texans and Mexican troops face off at Battle of San Antonio

3 Section 1 Tensions Mount Between Mexico and Texas
Not long after colonization began in Texas, conflicts erupted between the Mexican government and the colonists. Even though Mexican officials attempted to control the conflicts, their efforts served to anger and unify the colonists


5 Section 1 Vocabulary States’ Rights: idea that a state could choose
to obey or enforce federal laws Nationalist: person who supports policies of a nation; loyal to country Provision: a specific requirement set by a law Customs Duty: tax on things taken into or out of a country

6 Differences Arise Texas settlers from other areas (different cultures) didn’t always like Mexican government; kind of did their own thing regardless of what Mexican government wanted

7 A Question of States’ Rights
Tension rose over balance of power between a state and a nation Mexico divided into states (like US) Mexican Constitution of 1824: established a states’ rights government….most decisions and power is given to individual states Texas settlers liked this because they had more control over decisions in their state Texas was in state of Coahuila y Tejas. Capital: Saltillo

8 States’ Rights, con’t Some Mexican leaders thought that Mexican government should have the most power These were called Nationalists Didn’t like so many settlers from US moving to Texas Afraid that so many settlers from US would encourage everyone in Texas to want to join the US These fears caused conflict

9 Competing Lands Claims
Empresaria Haden Edwards (1825) received land grant near Nacogdoches When he got there, found people already living there Mexicans who had settled in area Cherokee families (Tah Chee—Cherokee leader) Edwards had to honor the fact that people were already living there but he wanted them to show proof of ownership…threatened to take land if didn’t show ownership People wrote letters to Mexican government and complained about Edwards Mexican officials sided with settlers already in area Edward’s brother, Benjamin, wrote angry letters back to Mexican officials

10 The Edwards Brothers Haden Edwards overturned an election for alcalde of Nacogdoches Mexican Governor Victor Blanco was tired of Edwards…revoked his land grant..told Edwards and his brother to leave Texas Edwards spent a lot of money to get land grant and didn’t want to lose it Negotiated a treaty with some Cherokees who were unhappy with not getting their own land title

11 The Fredonian Rebellion
Tensions built up between Texans (Edwards brothers) and Mexican government and finally resulted in a conflict called The Fredonian Rebellion See Multicultural Connections on page 193 Occurred near Nacogdoches in 1826 Mexican nationalists thought Texas settlers were trying to take over Texas Cherokee leaders John Hunter and Richard Fields joined with Benjamin Edwards and formed the Fredonian Republic and declared area free from Mexico Took over a building in Nacogdoches called the Old Stone Fort and removed the alcalde Occupied building for a month and called the capital of their newly freed area Fredonia

12 The Fredonian Rebellion, con’t
Mexico sent in soldiers to try to stop the rebellion (led by Mateo Ahumada) Stephen F. Austin was worried Edwards and Fredonian Rebellion would look bad for all Texas colonists He sided with the Mexican government He organized troops to fight with the Mexicans against the Fredonian Republic Conflict ended quickly Edwards brothers fled to Louisiana Cherokees executed Hunter and Fields Result of Fredonian Rebellion Increased Mexican concern about what was happening in Texas

13 An Attempt to Purchase Texas
Because so many US settlers had come to Texas, US offered to buy Texas from Mexico in 1826 US President John Quincy Adams sent a man named Joel R. Poinsett to Texas and he offered 1 million dollars to buy Texas…US wanted to expand westward Poinsett handled deal badly and it made Mexico mad FYI: Poinsett introduced poinsettia to US (see page 194)

14 The Mier y Teran Report Fredonian Rebellion and US offer to purchase Texas concerned Mexico Sent Mier y Teran (Mexican general) to Texas to find out what was going on. He spent a year touring Texas Wrote report Anglo colonists outnumbered Mexicans in Texas by 10-1 US influence was spreading in Texas Stated that Mexico must gain control of Texas

15 Teran Report, con’t As a result of the report
Mexico President Vicente Guerrero abolished slavery in Mexico They thought this would keep Anglo Americans from wanting to come to Texas…most of them had slaves

16 Law of April 6, 1830 Outlawed immigration from US to Texas
Cancelled all empresarial grants Encouraged Mexican and European settlers to come to Texas…provided money for them to come Slaves could not be brought into Texas New forts and presidios started to stop immigration from US Put customs duties on goods entering Texas from US

17 Law of April 6, 1830, con’t Anglo Texans didn’t like law
Needed slaves to work cotton fields Custom Duty taxes would hurt Texas economy Friends and relatives from US could not join family members already in Texas States’ Rights activitists thought Mexican national government had gone too far and made too many laws that states should have say so in Increased tensions between Texas and Mexican government

18 Tah Chee Cherokee Leader Haden Edwards and his wife Old Stone Fort
Flag of the Fredonian Rebellion Mier y Teran

19 Section 2 A Bitter Division Evolves
Clashes between Texas colonists and Mexican leaders over states’ rights led Texans to petition for a separate state.

20 Section 2 Vocabulary Allegiance: loyalty
Centralist: supporter of strong national government and weak state power Resolution: a formal statement of a decision, opinion, or course of action by an official group Delegate: person who represents others

21 Unrest in Texas After Law of April 6, 1830, was passed, things got bad between the Texas colonists and the Mexican government Mexico sent additional soldiers into Texas to collect the customs duty taxes Already had soldiers in Nacogdoches, San Antonio, and Goliad Sent soldiers into Fort Teran, Velasco, and Anahuac for the first time Colonists did not like more soldiers in Texas and they did not like having to pay new taxes

22 Santa Anna’s Rise to Power
Mexican president, Anastasio Bustamante, did not support Constitution of 1824…he believed in a strong national government and very weak state government This belief mad Texans mad This led to more conflict between Texans and the Mexican government

23 Santa Anna, con’t Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Born in Mexico in 1794
Joined Spanish army in 1810 Served on mission to defeat the Guiterrez-Magee expedition (filibusters) Stayed in “favor” with both the Spanish government and then with the Mexican government Right before Mexico became free from Spain, he switched his allegiance from Mexico to Spain In 1832, he decided he wanted some political power Opposed the centralist idea (said he believed in states’ rights) and launched a revolution against President Bustamante

24 Santa Anna, con’t Santa Anna sent Colonel Jose Antonio Mexia to Texas to check out the problems there Stephen F. Austin met with Mexia and told Mexia that Texans supported Santa Anna’s ideas (of states’ rights) But, the Texans soon found out that Santa Anna was really a centralist…he wanted all of the power himself (didn’t believe in states’ rights after all)

25 Conflict at Galveston George Fisher
Mexican official stationed in Texas Created problems among Texas colonists Was appointed by Mexican government to collect customs duties and to stop the smuggling of goods in/out of Texas without paying customs duty Tried to stop smuggler’s ships by making all ships carrying goods go through a customs house at Anahuac to tell officials what was on the ships This was not convenient or easy for ships….treacherous waters, long ways out of the way, etc….ship captains ignored this and didn’t think it was fair

26 Bradburn Increases Tensions
John Davis Bradburn Mexican official Anglo American who supported centralists in Mexico Job was to enforce Mexican laws dealing with settling in Texas Land titles Forced Texans to work for free to build a new fort at Anahuac and used colonist’s slaves to work for his public works programs

27 The Disturbance at Anahuac
William T. Logan Came to Anahuac from US looking for 2 of his slaves who had run away Bradburn had the slaves and wouldn’t give them back to Logan without a proof of ownership Logan hired attorney William Barrett Travis to help him Travis (only 22 years old) tried to trick Bradburn to get him to release the slaves Note to a guard saying Logan was back and had brought armed troops Bradburn rallied his soldiers but was embarrassed when Logan didn’t have soldiers Bradburn had Travis arrested (Travis’ parter, Patrick Jack, was arrested also)

28 Disturbance at Anahuac, con’t
Texans demanded the release of Travis and Jack Sent a group of 150 settlers to Anahuac to protest Bradburn said he would release Travis and Jack if settlers would retreat Settlers retreated but Bradburn did not release Travis and Jack Settlers decided to set up camp between Anahuac and Liberty on Turtle Bayou Bradburn reinforced his troops

29 Turtle Bayou Resolutions
Settlers camped at Turtle Bayou sent John Austin to Brazoria to get a cannon While waiting for him to come back, they drafted (wrote) the Turtle Bayou Resolutions The resolutions Colonists pledged loyalty to Mexico Stated support for Santa Anna (who seemed to be on the same side as the colonists but wasn’t)

30 Turtle Bayou Resolutions, con’t
Before John Austin got back with the cannon, a Mexican colonel, Jose de las Piedras, went to Anahuac to see what was going on When he got there, he Ordered Travis and Jack released from jail Dismissed Bradburn from his command Peaceful solution to problem…peacefulness didn’t last long

31 The Battle of Velasco When John Austin was trying to get the cannon back to Anahuac, he put the cannon on a ship and sailed it down Brazos River to Gulf of Mexico at Velasco When they got to Velasco, the Mexican colonel , Domingo de Ugartechea, wouldn’t let them continue on Fighting broke out…soldiers shot at each other for first time

32 Battle of Velasco, con’t
Both Mexicans and Texans died in the Battle of Velasco Mexican troops ran out of ammunition and had to surrender and returned to Mexico Texans continued on down Brazos River to Anahuac Got there and found out the problem at Anahuac had already ended

33 The Conventions of 1832 and 1833 Texans felt good about victories at Anahuac and Velasco but were still no happy with Mexican government 56 delegates met in San Felipe de Austin in October 1832 to draft a set of resolutions to give to Mexican government Stephen F. Austin was president of the delegates

34 Conventions, con’t Resolutions
Supported Mexican Constitution of 1824 (states’s rights) Wanted Law of April 6, 1830 repealed Wanted Mexico to allow immigration from US Wanted Texas to be exempt from customs duties Wanted protection from Native Americans Wanted public schools created Wanted state of Coahuila y Tejas to be divided so each territory could have its own government

35 Conventions, con’t After they drafted the resolutions, Stephen F. Austin went to San Antonio to get support of resolutions there But San Antonio officials wouldn’t send the resolutions to Mexican officials in Mexico City When Austin was in San Antonio, the delegates met again on April 1, 1833 Elected William Wharton as president

36 Conventions, con’t Drafted same resolutions as in 1832
Difference: they drafted a constitution for the Mexican state of Texas. They wanted Texas to be its own separate state and be able to make its own rules/laws and have its own constitution Followed same steps as any new state in the US Mexico saw this as defying the Mexican government

37 Austin in Mexico After Convention of 1833, Stephen F. Austin went to Mexico City to give the new Texas resolutions to Mexican officials Trip took 3 months When he got to Mexico City, city was in turmoil after a revolution led by Santa Anna Santa Anna (through his representative Valentin Gomez Farias) attempted to make changes Cholera epidemic swept through city; thousands died

38 Austin in Mexico, con’t Austin presented the resolutions to Gomez Farias Farias wasn’t in a hurry to address Texan’s problems Austin got impatient Wrote a letter to the Texans suggesting that they establish a new state government that would make Texas separate from Coahuila but still be a part of Mexico

39 Austin in Mexico, con’t Austin then met with Santa Anna
Santa Anna agreed to most of Texan’s requests Allowed US immigration to Texas again Agreed to improve mail service and court system Promised fairer taxes on goods coming to Texas from US Santa Anna would NOT agree to separate statehood for Texas

40 Austin’s Arrest After Austin met with Santa Anna, he left Mexico in December 1833 to return home Was arrested when he got to Saltillo Farias intercepted Austin’s letter to Texans and thought it challenged Mexican authority Austin was accused of treason and spent one year in prison in Mexico City First few months in solitary confinement

41 Austin’s Arrest, con’t Even in prison, he remained hopeful that the situation between Texas and Mexico would improve 2 lawyers, Spencer Jack and Peter Grayson, went to Mexico City in October 1834 to request Austin’s release He was released on December 25, 1834 but was under house arrest and had to stay in Mexico City for several more months Finally returned to Texas in summer of 1835 Things didn’t really heat up between Mexico and Texas until right before Austin got back to Texas….but then they got bad in the summer of 1835

42 Section 3 The Conflict Escalates
When Santa Anna gained control of the Mexican government, he sent Mexican troops into Texas once again. His actions convinced many Texans that independence was the solution.

43 Section 3 Vocabulary Faction: a group of people who share a
viewpoint on an issue Siege: lengthy military attack on a fortified place Provisional Government: a group of people who make laws and provide services on a temporary basis

44 Mexican Troops Return to Texas
Texans soon realized that they disagreed with Santa Anna Santa Anna took over control of Mexico Santa Anna sent General Martin Perfecto de Cos to command troops in Texas in 1835 De Cos’ mission was to support Santa Anna and squelch any rebellion De Cos also sent Antonio Tenoria to Anahuac to start collecting customs duties again

45 Mexican Troops Return, con’t
In Anahuac, 2 Texans were arrested for not showing respect to Tenorio Some Texans met and figured out that Santa Anna had overthrown their state government in Texas Then they decided to force Tenorio out of Anahuac They named William B. Travis as the leader to force Tenorio out

46 Mexican Troops Return, con’t
When Travis and his men got to Anahuac, he fired a shot to let Tenorio know he was there Some people disagreed with Travis for being so aggressive But, Tenorio surrendered and agreed to leave Texas

47 War and Peace Parties When Travis and his men were leaving Anahuac with Tenorio, they stopped in Harrisburg The Texans there were celebrating July 4 Tenorio was treated with respect; Travis was treated with disdain People wanted to show their loyalty to Mexico and their disgust with Travis’ aggressive actions

48 War and Peace Parties, con’t
What did this mean? Texans still couldn’t decide what they wanted to support….Santa Anna/centralism or states’ rights There were a group of Texas men who formed a “war party” Supported Travis and wanted to fight for Texas’ independence Three-Legged Willie Williamson(page 204) William B. Travis Henry Smith

49 War and Peace Parties, con’t
There was also a group of people who weren’t ready to fight yet…they wanted to wait and se what happened with Santa Anna They were known as the “peace party” These factions were not political parties but just had different opinions about how to deal with government

50 Centralist Reaction When Tenorio was “escorted” into San Antonio, Cos wanted Travis arrested for what he did Cos also wanted to arrest Lorenzo de Zavala….he was a Mexican who disagreed with Santa Anna…he fled to Texas for safety At the time Stephen F. Austin returned to Texas after being in prison, disputes between Cos and the Texans continued

51 Centralist Reaction, con’t
Texans wanted Stephen F. Austin to help them handle the situation After being in prison, Stephen F. Austin realized that the only thing Texans could do was to fight the Mexicans See Texas Voices p. 205 Cos wanted to arrest more Texans but then he was reminded that the Texans had a cannon in the town of Gonzales (Empresario Green De Witt had it to protect people from Indians)

52 Centralist Reaction, con’t
The Mexicans sent an army to seize the cannon at Gonzales

53 The Battle of Gonzales October 2, 1835
When Mexicans reached Gonzales, the alcalde would not give up the cannon without written orders; the Mexicans waited across the Guadalupe River for the written orders to come in In the meantime, the Texans buried the cannon! When word got out that the Mexicans were going to take the cannon, about 160 settlers joined the fight They elected JH Moore as their leader They dug up the cannon and flew a banner over it that said “Come and Take It”!!

54 Battle of Gonzales, con’t
Mexican Lieutenant Castenada led 100 men to Gonzales to take the cannon JH Moore’s men crossed the Guadalupe River first and fired the cannon at the Mexicans Castenada ordered his men to retreat to San Antonio Significance of the Battle of Gonzales: Showed that the Texans were very defiant toward the Mexicans and they weren’t afraid to use military force if necessary

55 The Army of the People When other Texans heard about the Battle of Gonzales, the quickly came to Gonzales ready to fight They decided to move on to San Antonio to drive out the Mexican soldiers permanently In the meantime, Cos sent 30 soldiers to Goliad to guard the Mexican fort there But, about 50 Texans led by George Collingsworth attacked the fort

56 The Army of the People, con’t
Why was this little battle at Goliad important? It showed that the Mexican army could be defeated easily With Texans controlling Goliad, a major supply route for Mexican army was cut off October 1835: 300 Texans at Gonzales organized themselves into the Army of the People Selected Stephen F. Austin as their commander

57 The Army of the People, con’t
As the Army of the People moved to attack the Mexicans at San Antonio, more settlers joined…about 600 in all When the Army of the People got to San Antonio, a brief fight broke out near Mission Concepcion Mexican soldiers retreated further into San Antonio Texans began a month long siege of the city During the siege, many colonists met and discussed what was happening in Texas

58 The Consultation Delegates met in San Felipe de Austin on November 4, 1835 to decide what Texas should do (some were for battle; some wanted peace) Their meeting was called the Consultation On November 6, 1835, the Consultation voted against a declaration of independence from Mexico with a vote of 33-15

59 The Consultation, con’t
The next day they voted to adopt the “Declaration of the People in Texas in General Convention Assembled” Stated they would remain loyal citizens of Mexico Said they fought only to stand up for Mexican Constitution of 1824 (states’ rights) Encouraged other Mexicans to also support the Constitution of 1824 Texans set up a provisional government Elected Henry Smith as governor

60 The Consultation, con’t
Set a date to meet again on March 1, 1836 Asked Stephen F. Austin, Branch T. Archer, and William Wharton to go to US and ask for money to support the Texans When Austin left, Edward Burleson became commander at San Antonio Appointed Sam Houston as overall commander of the Texas military forces

61 The Attack on San Antonio
As the siege of San Antonio dragged on and no fighting was going on, many men started leaving to go back home to their farms, etc Grass Fight Erastus “Deaf” Smith (Burleson’s scout) told Texans in San Antonio that Mexican soldiers were bringing horses and mules to San Antonio…mules were carrying silver with which to pay the Mexican soldiers Texans attacked and figured out that the mules were only carrying grass to feed the Mexican horses Texans were humiliated

62 Attack on San Antonio, con’t
Then the Texans heard that Cos’s troops were low on supplies and not very organized Ben Milam asked the Texans “Who will go into San Antonio with old Ben Milam?” About 300 of the remaining 500 men did and attacked on the Mexican soldiers Hendrick Arnold (mixed-race free man) led Milam’s men into battle Ben Milam was wounded and died

63 Attack on San Antonio, con’t
The fighting was fierce; lasted 5 days Fighting stopped when Cos surrendered Cos agreed to give Texans all of the money, supplies, arms, and property held by the Mexicans in San Antonio Agreed to support the Constitution of 1824 In exchange, Cos was allowed to take his remaining soldiers out of San Antonio Texans then thought that the problems were solved…but Santa Anna started gathering an army south of the Rio Grande River to deal with the Texas Revolutionaries

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