Presentation on theme: "The Road to Revolution. Mexican Constitution of 1824 Mexico wrote a new constitution and modeled it after U.S. Constitution President and Vice President."— Presentation transcript:
The Road to Revolution
Mexican Constitution of 1824 Mexico wrote a new constitution and modeled it after U.S. Constitution President and Vice President (4 year terms) Bi-Cameral Congress Supreme Court Catholic Faith is State religion Each state drafted its own state constitution and was given certain state’s rights
President Bustamante Was not following the Constitution of 1824 and instead gave the national government more power than the states This was the exact opposite of what was outlined in the Mexican Constitution
Fredonian Revolt Haden Edwards was given a land grant to settle Anglo Americans in Texas ◦ When he got to his land he found people living there ◦ Edwards told the settlers they had to prove they had a grant and they could stay
Fredonian Revolt The settlers appealed to the Mexican governor The governor backed the settlers Haden’s brother Benjamin took over Nacogdoches with a few men and declared it the free Republic of Fredonia
Effect Mexico sent in troops to recapture Nacogdoches ◦ The Edwards brothers appealed to S F Austin for support ◦ He refused to help them and sided with the Mexican officials ◦ The Edwards brothers fled and for a short time tensions between Mexico and the settlers were eased
Mier y Teran Report The Mexican government was concerned that there were too many Anglos in Texas They were afraid they would lose Texas to the United States ◦ General Manuel Mier y Teran was sent to report on the State of Texas
Mier y Teran Report General Mier y Teran reported that U.S. influence was growing and Anglo settlers greatly outnumbered Mexican Settlers This was unnerving for Mexico so….
Law of April 6, 1830 The Mexican Congress passed the Law of April 6, 1830 This act went against Constitution of 1824 ◦ It laid out very specific state’s rights ◦ Americans could no longer come to Texas ◦ All Empresarial claims were cancelled ◦ Slavery was abolished – in hopes it would deter any more Anglos from coming to Texas
Unrest in Texas Citizens in Texas were very upset ◦ Many of the settlers had come to Texas to get their new life started and left their families behind in the US ◦ They had planned on bringing the rest of their families to join them ◦ They also believed that the Mexican government was overstepping their power by telling the states what they could do
Unrest in Texas Continued Sensing the citizens uneasiness, Mexican officials sent troops to Texas. ◦ Texans very much resented the presence of Mexican troops overseeing their day to day lives.
The Rise of Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna President Bustamante had proven he was a centralist ◦ Supporter of strong national government Ignored Constitution of 1824 Angered Texans and was not in good favor with the State
Santa Anna’s Early Career Was a cadet in Spanish Military Served in mission to defeat the Gutierrez-Magee expedition Shifted his loyalty from Spain to Mexico at the perfect time…. ….Gained favor with the new government
Ambition Made everyone think he was opposed to the Centralist ◦ “Was actually a centralist himself” Began a Revolution against Bustamante Mexican Soldiers returned to Texas to fight
In Power Stephen F. Austin told Santa Anna that the Texans supported him ◦ They believed he supported their views Again he was lying to gain power Santa Anna becomes the leader of Mexico
Anahuac George Fisher was a Mexican official charged with customs duties. ◦ Main job was to stop smuggling First ordered all ships to report to the mouth of the Brazos to be checked ◦ Did not work Then ordered all ships to report to Anahuac at Galveston Bay before going to their destination
Problems Galveston Bay was very much out of the way Many had to go 200 miles inland to get papers to leave Many captains ignored this order viewing it as unfair.
John Davis Bradburn Mexican official directed to enforce laws Arrested Francisco Madero for issuing land titles ◦ Madero had not issued them to Americans, so he was not breaking the law Bradburn then ordered the settlement Liberty be dismantled ◦ Forced the settlers to rebuild Liberty and provide materials to do so.
William T. Logan Showed up looking for his two slaves that had run away. ◦ Bradburn was housing them Hired lawyer William B. Travis to help him while he went to Louisiana to get his legal documents. Travis told a guard Logan had returned armed.
Bradburn Freaks!!! Logan never came and Bradburn looked silly Bradburn unlawfully arrested Travis and his law partner Settlers rose up and were ready to forcefully take Travis back Bradburn told them he would release them if the settlers would retreat.
Bradburn Freaks!!! Settlers retreated, Bradburn did not release Travis Bradburn reinforced while settlers were not there
Turtle Bayou Resolutions Texans drafted the Turtle Bayou Resolutions while John Austin went to obtain a cannon. Resolutions said: ◦ Colonist were loyal to Mexico ◦ Supported Santa Anna ◦ Loyal to Constitution of 1824
Turtle Bayou Resolutions Settlers sent John Austin to Brazoria to bring back a cannon. Turtle Bayou Resolutions ◦ Colonists pledged their loyalty to Mexico and Santa Anna. ◦ Remember: Santa Anna was a centralist posing as a nationalist!
No More Bradburn Before Austin’s return Colonel Jose de las Piedras showed up to survey the situation Saw how messed up everything was Dismissed Bradburn Released Travis and his partner Ended the argument peacefully, but this was an omen for violence to come.
Battle of Velasco John Austin has the cannon and he’s on his way back to Brazoria. ◦ He and his men sail down the Brazos River toward the Gulf of Mexico. They arrive in Velasco. ◦ Colonel Urgartechea refuses to let the men pass through Velasco with the cannon. ◦ Fighting breaks out! ◦ First time Mexican and Texan troops fire at one another.
Convention of 1832 Texans met in San Felipe de Austin and drafted a set of resolutions. Texans pledge their support for the Constitution of Called for a repeal of the Law of April 6, 1830 and the customs duty. ◦ Repeal: to take away Wanted to allow U.S. immigration to Texas. Wanted the Mexican government to divide the state of Coahuila y Tejas and grant Texas statehood. Established a plan to create a militia. Donate government lands for public schools.
Convention of 1833 Same proposals at the Convention of 1832 EXCEPT they drafted a new Constitution. ◦ Mexican state of Texas! To the Mexican government, this looked like an act of defiance!
SFA is in Mexico SFA leaves for Mexico to take the new resolutions to the Mexican government – impatient SFA wrote a letter to his fellow Texans. ◦ The letter suggested the Texans establish a new state government. ◦ New state government would make Texas separate from Coahuila but still a part of Mexico. SFA meets with Santa Anna ◦ Santa Anna repealed the immigration law prohibiting immigrants from the U.S. ◦ Promised fair taxes on goods imported from the U.S. ◦ Rejected separate statehood for Texas.
SFA Arrested ! Austin’s letter to the Texans was intercepted. He was accused of treason. He was imprisoned in Mexico City for a year and never received a trial.
Conflict Escalates Texans soon found out that Santa Anna was a centralist and not a nationalist. He had a new constitution written that placed all the power in his hands! To squash any rebellion that might take place in Texas, Santa Anna sent General Cos to watch over Texas.
Battle of Gonzales General Urgartechea hears there is a 6 pound cannon in the town of Gonzales. Texans refused to return the cannon. When the Mexican army arrived, the Texans fired on the Mexicans forcing them to retreat to San Antonio. This battle showed that the Texans were willing to use military force if necessary. The Battle of Gonzales is the battle that began the revolution!
Siege of Bexar (San Antonio) Texans capture the city of San Antonio from General Cos. Texans believed the crisis was over. Santa Anna had other ideas!