Presentation on theme: "African Nationalist Movements"— Presentation transcript:
1 African Nationalist Movements SS7H1bExplain how nationalism led to independence in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria.
2 What is a nationalist movement? The progressive development of gaining a sense of identity with a nation
3 By Early 20th Century Europe had colonized almost all of Africa Liberia and Ethiopia are the only countries that were not colonizedAfricans wanted to control their own governments and resourcesLatter part of 20th century- African nations worked to free themselves
4 Kenya Mau Mau- secret society that existed from 1952-1960 Believed force would free KenyaThousands of people killed (only 100 Europeans)After long period of fighting, Britain granted independence1963- first democratic election- Jomo Kenyatta elected first president
5 NigeriaBritain given control at the Berlin Conference and made region 2 coloniesMade up of many ethnic groupsGroups did not want to be in the same countryThe division led to different treatment by the BritishBritish spent more money in the south than in the north
6 Nigeria cont.1940’s- Nigerians started many groups to fight British ruleThese groups eventually became political partiesLate 1940’s and the 1950’s- British let Nigerians elect their own governmentGiven independence on Oct. 1, 1960 without having to fightVideo 11:23
7 South AfricaDuring colonization, Britain gains control of South Africa.Two very different nationalist movements emerge following the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910.The white Afrikaner nationalist movement which is represented by the National Party, formed in January 1914.The black nationalist movement is led primarily by the African National Congress (ANC), formed in 1912.
8 South Africa cont.The Afrikaner nationalist movement grew in popularity over the next 30 years, playing on Afrikaner (white) resentment of the British control of most of South Africa's economy and fear of the black majority.In 1948 the National Party wins the all-white general election.The basis of the campaign that won this election was to introduce a system of “apartheid” to totally separate the races.
9 South Africa cont.Opposition to the “apartheid” system by the black majority is ruthlessly suppressed.It receives increasing support from the white electorate.The National Party (white) remained in power until 1994.3:41
10 ReflectionPretend you were born in Nigeria, South Africa, or Kenya. Explain why you might want your country to be independent from European rule. What do you want to happen when your country is independent? What kind of rule would you like to live under?