Africa! The dark continent! The history of the great mystery!
Kush was located in the Upper Nile valley from 1700 BCE/BC to 300 CE/AD). It is an iron age culture. The Capital city was Meroe. Axum conquered Kush The Kingdom of Axum was located in the northern Highlands of Ethiopia, on the Red Sea, and along the upper Nile River from 1000 BCE/BC to 1000 CE/AD Axum was Christian with roots in Judaism. Trade linked it to India and the Mediterranean. The Islamic Empire did not convert Axum, but it cut it off from trading partners. This, plus Internal religious strife, led to Axum’s decline Kush (Nubia Axum The Obelisk of Axum
Ghana was located in western Africa north of the Niger River valley and south of the Sahara Desert from 300 CE/AD to 1240 CE/AD The government was led by “Ghana” (ruler) who was treated as a semi-divine king The economy was based on the gold Ghana sold to Muslim traders for salt. This is known as the Trans–Saharan trade (the Sand Road) There were two major religions in Ghana ◦ Animism - (the belief that non-human entities have souls) ◦ Islam – Islam spread to Ghana but the “Ghana” and many of his people kept their traditional beliefs The golden Stool (throne) of Ghana (very impressive)
Mali was located along the Niger River from north central Africa to the Atlantic Ocean from 1000 CE/AD to 1450 CE/AD Mali was ruled at its peak by Sundiata Keita in 1325 CE/AD (united the tribes of Mali) Mansa Musa (1312 to 1337) is Mali’s greatest Emperor. He makes Timbuktu the center of government, trading, learning and religion The economy was based on the gold for salt Trans–Saharan trade Mansa Musa converted to Islam after visiting Mecca; however, local religion (animism) continue to be practiced Mansa Musa
Songhai is located in the former Ghana and Mali kingdoms and spread throughout all of the Niger River Valley in Western Africa from 1450 to 1591 CE/AD Songhai becomes the largest West Africa empire Songhai is defeated by the Moroccans due to superior technology The overlap of the three African Kingdoms
Zimbabwe was located between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers in southeast Africa (close to the Indian Ocean) from 1100 to 1500 CE/AD The economy was based on a gold for agriculture trading system Great Zimbabwe was the capital of a group of city states during the golden age of Zimbabwe and includes a great shine (rock art) Zimbabwe converted to Islam to avoid slavery and to continue trade Not that rock art! That rock art!