2 Aksum (Axum)Arabians crossed the Red Sea and intermarried with people from modern-day EthiopiaThese people created the kingdom of Aksum
3 Aksum gains powerIn the 300’s AD, Aksum destroyed Kush, becoming the most powerful kingdom in Eastern Africa
4 A trading centerAksum becomes an important trading center for goods around the Mediterranean, Africa, and AsiaMany new ideas introduced there, including Christianity
5 Aksum converts to Christianity When a king named Ezana took the throne around 400 AD, he converted to Christianity and made Christianity the official religion of AksumThere are still millions of Christians in this region today.
6 Islamic InvasionsThe Muslim’s invasions into North Africa after Muhammad’s death cut into Aksum’s territory and isolated itAksum would endure and become Ethiopia, but would never have the power it once held.
7 SwahiliRefers to the people who live as far north as Somalia in the Horn of Africa and as far southIndian Ocean trade they are linked with ArabsBlend of Arab CultureIslam
8 West AfricaBelow the Sahara Desert is a semi-dry region characterized by grasslands called the Sahel (also called Savannah)The region is rich in gold deposits
9 Gold-Salt TradeThe Sahel region lacks salt deposits, and so people there had to trade for salt from the Sahara DesertSeveral powerful empires developed around the trade of gold and salt and would control much of Western Africa for almost 1,000 years
10 CamelsCamels allowed the gold-salt trade to be successful. They allowed people to transport great quantities of gold and salt longer distances.Other pack animals cannot cross the Sahara, but camels can because they can go up to 40 days without water.
11 GhanaNo one is really sure when the Ghana kingdom began, but they do know that it became very powerfulIt is located between the Niger River and the Sahara DesertGhana became powerful because of its control of gold in the gold-salt trade across the Sahara Desert
13 Ghana declinesGhana eventually declined in power, mostly because it lost its control of the gold trade and because new gold mines were found farther east
14 AnimismThe worship of nature spirits- spirits in plants, animals, sun, water, etc.People from Ghana worshipped an animist religionStill prominent in parts of Africa today
15 MaliAs Ghana declined in the 1200’s AD, the kingdom of Mali gained in power.Mali was centered around these new salt mines east of GhanaMali’s powerful king Sundiata Keita built an even larger empireSeveral of its kings were very devout Muslims, even making the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj).
16 TimbuktuMali established the city, Timbuktu, which was a center for trade and learning.Universities were established to promote learningMany converted to Islam, and built mosques.Others incorporated parts of Islam into their animist beliefs
18 Get out your books to page 416 Read the primary source:What does the word abhorrence mean in this passage?What do the people of Mali do to guilty people?How do you think this affects the feeling of safety in Mali?
19 SonghaiEventually, Mali declined, and Songhai took its place and built an even larger empireAlso was also based on the gold-salt tradeAnd, it inherited much of Mali’s blend of Islamic and animist traditions
23 Zimbabwe abandonedNo one knows why Zimbabwe was abandoned, but they think it was because the land was over grazed and the soil depleted
24 Your Mission Draw a map of Africa and: Indicate the locations of the kingdoms of Egypt, Kush, Aksum (Axum), Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and ZimbabweThe location of the gold-salt tradeIndicate the years that Aksum, Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Zimbabwe were in powerIndicate the religion of eachIndicate how each gained economic power