Presentation on theme: "African Kingdoms. Essential Understanding States and empires flourished in Africa during the medieval period, including: West Africa: Ghana, Mali, Songhai."— Presentation transcript:
Essential Understanding States and empires flourished in Africa during the medieval period, including: West Africa: Ghana, Mali, Songhai East Africa: Axum South Africa: Zimbabwe
East African Kingdoms Axum Location: –Near the Nile River –Near the Ethiopian Highlands Christian Kingdom History: King Azana of Axum conquered Kush (Nubia); grew wealthy from controlling trade between Africa & the Red Sea (spices, carpets, dyes, gold, ivory…) Axum Nile River Valley
East African Kingdoms Zimbabwe Location: –Near Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers –On the coast of the Indian Ocean. City of “Great Zimbabwe” is capital of this rich empire. Reached its peak of power in the 1400s; remnants destroyed by the Portuguese in the 1500s Zambezi River Limpopo River
West African Kingdoms Ghana, Mali, & Songhai Location: –Next to or on the Niger River. –Near and part of the Sahara Desert Sahara Desert
West African Kingdoms Ghana, Mali, & Songhai Mansa Musa –A king of Mali –Increased wealth by opening trade routes & exchanging gold for salt –Pilgrimage to Mecca Society –Usually Islamic, also believed in animal worship (animism) –City of Timbuktu is a center of learning and trade. –Grew rich taxing the salt & gold trade.
West African Kingdoms Ghana, Mali, & Songhai Songhai broke away from Mali and replaced it as the most powerful kingdom in West Africa Askia Mohammad was the greatest ruler of Songhai –Divided land into provinces –Zealous Muslim –Legal system based on the Qur’an Defeated by Moroccan troops in 1591
Timbuktu Capital of Mali Home of Mansa Musa A Muslim/Islamic City Muslims from all of West Africa came to the city to study at the universities.
Gold & Salt Trade Ghana, Mali & Songhai have lots of gold. They need salt to preserve food, add flavors, etc. North Africans (above Sahara) have salt, want gold to use as money. This means people cross the Sahara Desert to trade salt and gold.