3 Regions of Africa Identify the Regions on the Map Sahara Desert- World’s largest desert, comprises most of North AfricaWest Africa- Along the Atlantic Ocean and in the Niger River ValleyEast Africa- Along the Red Sea and in the Nile River ValleySub-Saharan Africa- Region located below the Sahara Desert in South Africa
4 Axum Location: Ethiopian Highlands and the Nile River of East Africa Date: 1ADLocation: Ethiopian Highlands and the Nile River of East AfricaIs now the modern nation of EthiopiaFounded by Arabs from the Southern Arabian Peninsula (draw a line from Arabian peninsula to Axum)Eventually merged blended Arab and African Cultures
5 Axum- Christian Kingdom Traded along the Red Sea with, Egypt, and the Roman EmpireCultural diffusion an EFFECT of trade, adopted Roman ides, the most important was ChristianityMissionaries brought the Christian Faith to Axum around 320 ADAxum’s King, Ezana converted to Christianity and made it the official religionSt. Mary of Zion churchEthiopia
6 Zimbabwe 1000 A.D. to 1500 A.D. Located in sub-Saharan Africa Interior region of southeast AfricaControlled The Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers allowed Zimbabwe to TRADE via the Indian Ocean despite being landlockedPracticed various polytheistic religions
7 The “Great Zimbabwe”Zimbabwe was known for building huge stone fortressesThe city “Great Zimbabwe” or great stone house was the capital of great Empire“Stone House” refers to the large royal palace-fortresses built for defense against attack
8 Zimbabwe 1500 AD:Mono-Motapa was the most important ruler He expanded the kingdom’s bordersIncreased commerce (trade) in the Indian Ocean
9 West African Kingdoms Ghana, Mali, Songhai Rose & fell in succession from ADTraded (gold & salt) to build empires of immense (huge) wealth & military power
10 Gold & Salt Trade of the West African Kingdoms The civilizations in West Africa were located near prosperous gold minesThey traded the gold across the Sahara for salt and other goodsGhana, Mali and Songhai all benefited from these mines
11 Religion of West Africa Kingdoms Early on these civilizations practiced animism, worshipping nature spiritsHowever, traders from the Middle East brought Islam with themMany West Africans adopted Islam
12 Trans-Saharan Trade Routes These extended from the sub-Saharan West African kingdoms across the Sahara Desert to EuropeSaharan Trade connected the African Kingdoms (Ghana, Mali, & Songhai) with the European World(Use the map from the next slide and draw a line showing the trade route from West Africa to Europe
14 West African KingdomsBrought people from the African interior regions into contact with the Middle East
15 Ghana Established an empire in West Africa beginning in 300 -1200A.D. Located in the Niger Valley between the Sahara Desert and Atlantic OceanTraded gold for goods across the SaharaHad a hierarchy of classes, ruled by a dynasty controlling a large, centralized bureaucracy
17 An Example of a Trans-Saharan caravan Territory Ghana Ruled in red
18 Mali Took control of West Africa around 1235 A.D. Also prospered from trans-Saharan tradeCapital was TimbuktuTimbuktu became a center for trade and cross-cultural learning
19 Mansa Musa Mali KingMali Controlled Africa until the death of the their great king, Mansa Musa in A.D. 1332King Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca and Cairo, bringing caravans of gold to trade with Arab Muslim leadersHis voyage made Mali famous in the Middle East & Europe
20 What is the name of the river? What is their capital city?
21 Islam in MaliIslam came to West Africa from Arab traders who traveled trade routesMali would adopt Islam under Mansa MusaThe city of Timbuktu became the center of Islamic culture and education in West AfricaTimbuktu was also a center of trade
22 Songhai Replaced the Mali Empire when it was weakened by civil wars Ruled West Africa from A.D until A.D. 1589Continued the gold/salt tradeAlso practiced IslamGreat builders, constructed large mosques and civic buildings
23 What River does Songhai lie along. What is he name of the Capital What River does Songhai lie along? What is he name of the Capital? List the common characteristics of the Kingdoms of Songhai and Mali.
24 ConclusionAfrica is made up of four distinct regions. The people who inhabit these regions are just as different. The kingdoms of Axum, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Mali and Songhai all played a major role in the development of Africa from the first years AD to the Middle Ages.