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African Civilizations

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Presentation on theme: "African Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:

1 African Civilizations
Empires of the Eastern Hemisphere Slides 1-25


3 Regions of Africa Identify the Regions on the Map
Sahara Desert- World’s largest desert, comprises most of North Africa West Africa- Along the Atlantic Ocean and in the Niger River Valley East Africa- Along the Red Sea and in the Nile River Valley Sub-Saharan Africa- Region located below the Sahara Desert in South Africa

4 Axum Location: Ethiopian Highlands and the Nile River of East Africa
Date: 1AD Location: Ethiopian Highlands and the Nile River of East Africa Is now the modern nation of Ethiopia Founded by Arabs from the Southern Arabian Peninsula (draw a line from Arabian peninsula to Axum) Eventually merged blended Arab and African Cultures

5 Axum- Christian Kingdom
Traded along the Red Sea with, Egypt, and the Roman Empire Cultural diffusion an EFFECT of trade, adopted Roman ides, the most important was Christianity Missionaries brought the Christian Faith to Axum around 320 AD Axum’s King, Ezana converted to Christianity and made it the official religion St. Mary of Zion church Ethiopia

6 Zimbabwe 1000 A.D. to 1500 A.D. Located in sub-Saharan Africa
Interior region of southeast Africa Controlled The Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers allowed Zimbabwe to TRADE via the Indian Ocean despite being landlocked Practiced various polytheistic religions

7 The “Great Zimbabwe” Zimbabwe was known for building huge stone fortresses The city “Great Zimbabwe” or great stone house was the capital of great Empire “Stone House” refers to the large royal palace-fortresses built for defense against attack

8 Zimbabwe 1500 AD:Mono-Motapa was the most important ruler
He expanded the kingdom’s borders Increased commerce (trade) in the Indian Ocean

9 West African Kingdoms Ghana, Mali, Songhai
Rose & fell in succession from AD Traded (gold & salt) to build empires of immense (huge) wealth & military power

10 Gold & Salt Trade of the West African Kingdoms
The civilizations in West Africa were located near prosperous gold mines They traded the gold across the Sahara for salt and other goods Ghana, Mali and Songhai all benefited from these mines

11 Religion of West Africa Kingdoms
Early on these civilizations practiced animism, worshipping nature spirits However, traders from the Middle East brought Islam with them Many West Africans adopted Islam

12 Trans-Saharan Trade Routes
These extended from the sub-Saharan West African kingdoms across the Sahara Desert to Europe Saharan Trade connected the African Kingdoms (Ghana, Mali, & Songhai) with the European World (Use the map from the next slide and draw a line showing the trade route from West Africa to Europe


14 West African Kingdoms Brought people from the African interior regions into contact with the Middle East

15 Ghana Established an empire in West Africa beginning in 300 -1200A.D.
Located in the Niger Valley between the Sahara Desert and Atlantic Ocean Traded gold for goods across the Sahara Had a hierarchy of classes, ruled by a dynasty controlling a large, centralized bureaucracy

16 Ghana

17 An Example of a Trans-Saharan caravan
Territory Ghana Ruled in red

18 Mali Took control of West Africa around 1235 A.D.
Also prospered from trans-Saharan trade Capital was Timbuktu Timbuktu became a center for trade and cross-cultural learning

19 Mansa Musa Mali King Mali Controlled Africa until the death of the their great king, Mansa Musa in A.D. 1332 King Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca and Cairo, bringing caravans of gold to trade with Arab Muslim leaders His voyage made Mali famous in the Middle East & Europe

20 What is the name of the river? What is their capital city?

21 Islam in Mali Islam came to West Africa from Arab traders who traveled trade routes Mali would adopt Islam under Mansa Musa The city of Timbuktu became the center of Islamic culture and education in West Africa Timbuktu was also a center of trade

22 Songhai Replaced the Mali Empire when it was weakened by civil wars
Ruled West Africa from A.D until A.D. 1589 Continued the gold/salt trade Also practiced Islam Great builders, constructed large mosques and civic buildings

23 What River does Songhai lie along. What is he name of the Capital
What River does Songhai lie along? What is he name of the Capital? List the common characteristics of the Kingdoms of Songhai and Mali.

24 Conclusion Africa is made up of four distinct regions. The people who inhabit these regions are just as different. The kingdoms of Axum, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Mali and Songhai all played a major role in the development of Africa from the first years AD to the Middle Ages.

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