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Mr. Ermer World History Miami Beach Senior High
Second largest continent after Asia Complex Geography: Mountains along Mediterranean Sea Sahara Desert south of the mountains/sea Sahara=world’s largest desert Western Hump, Eastern Horn mostly grasslands Jungles near the coast Great Rift Valley: snow-capped mts., lakes, plateaus Congo River Basin: Tropical rain forest Four Climate Zones: temperate, desert, rain forest, & savannas
First African Civilizations: Egypt, Kush, & Axum Kush (250 B.C.-A.D. 150): 1000 B.C.: Nubia freed from Egyptian control Kushites learn Iron making from Assyrians Capital city of Meroe rich in iron ore, on trade routes Kush grows rich from trade w/ Romans, Arabs, Indians Axum: Founded by Arabs, mixed Arab and African cultures King Ezana makes Christianity official religion, conquers Kush Muslim traders from coast move in to take control of trade in slaves and ivory from Axum
A.D. 500: Ghana is 1 st great W. African state Located on upper Niger R., traded gold and iron Known for skilled blacksmiths 1100 AD: Ghana declines from war, Mali rises Sundiata defeats Ghana, est. Timbuktu, Mali Mansa Musa= rich/powerful king of Mali Famous for his pilgrimage to Mecca, gold Mali declines from Civil War, Songhai rises Sunni Ali establishes new trading kingdom Songhai eventually conquered by sultan of Morocco
Mali (Bilad al-sudan) Founded by Africans who earlier converted to Islam Mostly learned of Islam through trade, not force Islam appealed to poor (alms) and leaders (military, admin) Grew rich through Sub-Saharan trade/gold Sundiata leads Malinke people to victory, founds Mali Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca, gold & edu. Mansa Suleiman & Ibn-Battuta’s travels
Early Christian communities established in N. Africa c. 350: Kingdom of Axum converts to Christianity Ethiopian kingdom, Bible translated Solomonic dynasty claims ties to David and Solomon Ethiopia remains Christian island, surrounded by Islam Ethiopian Christianity takes on unique qualities
West African Bantus move East Not as army, but subsistence farming communities Spread iron smelting technology around Africa Est. trading city of Great Zimbabwe Port Cities on Indian Ocean flourish Bantus mix with Arab Muslims who settle on coast Est. great trade cities: Mombasa, Mogadishu, Kilwa Swahili: mix of Arab/African cultures
On page 142, write and answer questions 1-9
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