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National and Regional Growth, 1800–1844

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Presentation on theme: "National and Regional Growth, 1800–1844"— Presentation transcript:

1 National and Regional Growth, 1800–1844
Ch 11 National and Regional Growth, 1800–1844

2 National and Regional Growth, 1800–1844
Industrial growth, the expansion of slavery, and the development of nationalism and sectionalism change American society.

3 Section 1 Early Industry and Inventions

4 Early Industry and Inventions
New machines and factories change the way people live and work in the late 1700s and early 1800s.

5 Industrial Revolution

6 Free Enterprise and Factories
During Industrial Revolution factory machines replace hand tools Manufacturing replaces farming as main form of work Factory system brings workers, machines together under one roof

7 Free Enterprise and Factories
People leave farms, move to cities where factories are located Work for wages, have set schedules, way of life changes War of 1812 leads U.S. towards industrialization British blockade causes U.S. to manufacture goods previously imported

8 Factories Come to New England
New England good place to set up successful factories because: 1. fast-moving rivers 2. ships and access to the ocean 3. willing labor force

9 A New Way to Manufacture
U.S. government hires Eli Whitney to make 10,000 muskets for army Guns are made one at a time by gunsmiths, Whitney changes this method

10 A New Way to Manufacture
Uses interchangeable parts, parts exactly alike, to make guns (1801) Speeds up production, makes repairs easy, uses less-skilled workers

11 New Methods of Transportation

12 Moving People, Goods, and Messages
Robert Fulton invents steamboat, puts Clermont on Hudson River (1807) Clermont makes trip from New York to Albany and back in record time Samuel F. B. Morse first demonstrates the telegraph in 1837

13 Moving People, Goods, and Messages
Enables people to communicate in seconds between cities By 1861, telegraph lines span U.S., brings people closer as a nation

14 Morse Code

15 Section 2 Plantations and Slavery Spread

16 Plantations and Slavery Spread
The invention of the cotton gin and the demand for cotton cause slavery to spread in the South.

17 Cotton is King

18 The Cotton Boom Eli Whitney invents cotton gin—machine that cleans cotton (1793) Makes cotton cleaning more efficient, changes Southern life: one person could clean 1 pound of cotton a day by hand; the cotton gin could clean 50 pounds of cotton a day.


20 The Cotton Boom Cotton plantations spread west, triggers a move westward Planters grow more cotton than other goods, cotton exports increase Native Americans driven off land taken over for cotton plantations Slaves from the east are sold to work on new cotton plantations

21 Slavery Expands From 1790 to 1860, cotton production increases greatly
As cotton earnings rise so does price of slaves Expansion of slavery has major impact on South’s economy, people

22 Spread of Cotton

23 Southern Culture

24 Slavery Divides the South
Slavery divides white Southerners into: those who have slaves those who do not One-tenth of white families have plantations with 20 or more slaves

25 Slavery Divides the South
Most white Southern farmers have few or no slaves, but support slavery Slavery has become necessary to increase profits

26 Conditions of Slaves

27 African-Americans in the South
Slavery divides African-American Southerners into: those who are enslaved those who are free Enslaved African-Americans are one-third of South’s population (1840)

28 African-Americans in the South
Most work on plantations, while some work as domestic servants or craftsmen 8 percent of African-Americans in South are free (1840)

29 Slave Rebellions Nat Turner leads famous slave rebellion, in Virginia (1831) Turner and his followers kill 55 white people Turner’s men are captured and 16 are killed. Turner is caught, tried, and hanged

30 Slave Rebellions Rebellion spreads fear in South
Pass harsh laws to control enslaved and free African-Americans

31 Section 3 Nationalism and Sectionalism

32 Nationalism and Sectionalism
Patriotic pride unites the states, but tension between the North and South emerges

33 Nationalism Unites the Country
President Madison presents plan, make U.S. economically self-sufficient Henry Clay promotes plan as the American System: 1. establish a protective tariff

34 Nationalism Unites the Country
2. establish a national bank 3. improve U.S. transportation systems

35 Roads and Canals Link Cities
U.S. builds National Road from Maryland to Illinois Canals improve water transportation, Erie Canal is completed (1825) Creates water route between New York City and Buffalo, New York

36 Roads and Canals Link Cities
Opens Ohio Valley and Great Lakes region to settlers it also stimulates trade Increases nationalism by uniting 2 sections of the country

37 The Era of Good Feelings
Democratic-Republican James Monroe wins U.S. presidency (1816) Political differences give way, this leads to the Era of Good Feelings

38 Era of Good Feeling

39 The Era of Good Feelings
People shifted their loyalty away from the state govt. and more toward the federal govt. Americans sense of nationalism (a feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward your country) started growing

40 The Era of Good Feelings
Supreme Court decisions strengthen federal government and national unity McCulloch v. Maryland, state cannot tax a national bank Gibbons v. Ogden, only federal government controls interstate commerce

41 Sectional Tensions Increase
Sectionalism—loyalty to section of a country rather than to the nation South relies on cotton and slaves; northeast on manufacturing and trade In the West, settlers want cheap land and good transportation

42 Sectional Tensions Increase
Interests in these sections often conflict Missouri applies for statehood (1817), people in the state want slavery

43 Sectional Tensions Increase
U.S. has 11 slave states, 11 free states Adding Missouri as slave state would upset balance of power

44 Missouri Compromise

45 The Missouri Compromise
Nation argues over admitting Missouri as slave state or free state Henry Clay suggests the Missouri Compromise (1820): 1. admits Missouri as slave state

46 The Missouri Compromise
2. admits Maine as free state 3. bans slavery in Louisiana Territory north of parallel 36º 30’ 4. keeps balance of power between slave states and free states


48 Monroe Doctrine

49 The Monroe Doctrine Some Latin American countries gain independence from Spain and Portugal Some European monarchs plan to help Spain and Portugal regain colonies

50 The Monroe Doctrine U.S. fears their own government would be in danger
Russian colonies in Pacific Northwest almost reach San Francisco

51 The Monroe Doctrine President Monroe issues the Monroe Doctrine (1823): 1. closes Americas to further colonization 2. warns against European efforts to reestablish colonies 3. promises U.S. stay out of European affairs


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