Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11, Section 3. In 1815, Madison presented a plan to Congress to help make the U.S. more self-sufficient. Henry Clay promoted the plan as the."— Presentation transcript:
In 1815, Madison presented a plan to Congress to help make the U.S. more self-sufficient. Henry Clay promoted the plan as the American System, which had three main points. 1. Establish a protective tariff. 2. Establish a national bank. 3. Improve country's transportation systems.
James Monroe won the Election of 1816. Several key Supreme Court decisions occurred under Monroe. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)- the court ruled that a state could not tax a national bank. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)- the court ruled that interstate commerce could be regulated only by the federal government, not state governments.
In 1806, congress funded a road from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, West Virginia. By 1841, the National Road, the country’s main east-west route, extended to Illinois.
The period from 1790 to 1855 is often known as the Age of Canals. Completed in 1825, the massive Erie Canal created a water route from New York City to Buffalo. Linked the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean, transporting farm products, people, and manufactured goods.
Improvements in railroads led to decline in canal use. In 1830, about 23 miles of train track existed. By 1850, 9,000 miles existed.
Sectionalism- the loyalty of a groups interest to a specific region or section of country. By the early 1800’s, economic changes created divisions within the U.S. The south relied on plantations and slaves. The north relied on manufacturing and trade. The west wanted cheap land for new settlers.
Sectionalism became a major issue when Missouri applied or statehood in 1817. People in Missouri wanted to allow slavery. At the current time, there were 11 slave states and 11 free states. Adding Missouri as a slave state would upset the balance of power in congress.
Representatives argued over admitting Missouri as a slave or free state. Southerners claimed that the Constitution did not give Congress the power to ban slavery. Maine applied for statehood. Henry Clay suggested that Missouri be admitted as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Congress passed the plan in 1820 known as The Missouri Compromise. It kept the balance of power in congress. -banned slavery north of the parallel 36° 30’- Missouri’s southern boarder.
The Mason-Dixon Line formed the boarder between Maryland and Pennsylvania. Came to be used for the division between slave states and free states. Became the division between the North and South.
The Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)- limited both Britain's and the U.S. Naval forces in the Great lakes. In the Convention of 1818, the 49 th Parallel was set as the U.S.-Canadian boarder as far west as the rocky mountains. U.S. relations with Spain remained tense. The two nations disagreed upon boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase. The Seminoles of East Florida raided white settlements.
In 1817, Gen. Andrew Jackson captured two Spanish cities- Pensacola and Saint Marks. Monroe gave Spain two options: 1. the U.S. would police Florida or, 2. turn them over to the U.S. In the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819, Spain handed Florida over to the U.S. and gave up claims in the Oregon Country.
The nations felt threatened by sectionalism and successful revolutions in Southern America. In December 1823, President Monroe issued a statement that became known as the Monroe Doctrine. He claimed that the Americas were closed to further colonization. He also warned that European efforts to reestablish colonies would be considered “dangerous to our peace and safety.” He promised that the U.S. would stay out of European affairs. The Monroe Doctrine showed that the U.S. saw itself as a world power and Latin American protector.