2 What is a Short Story?A short story is a brief work of fiction where, usually, the main character faces a conflict that is worked out, or resolved, in the plot of the story
3 Character Character – a person in a story, poem or play Types of CharactersRound – fully developed, has many different character traitsFlat- stereotyped, one-dimensional, few traitsStatic – does not changeDynamic – changes as a result of the story's events, or plot
4 CharacterizationHow the author develops the characters, especially the main character
5 Characterization Direct characterization Indirect characterization The author directly states what the character’s personality is like.Example: “He is a cruel person.”Indirect characterizationA character’s personality is shown through his/her actions, thoughts, feelings, words, appearance or other character’s observations or reactions. (We, as readers, make inferences.)
6 Protagonist Main character of the story who changes the most important charactermakes a realization about self or the world around him/herNote: Death is not a change.
7 Antagonist A major character who opposes the protagonist the antagonist does not changeTypes of antagonists:peoplenaturesociety
8 Conflict A struggle between two opposing forces Types Internal – takes place in a character’s own mind (i.e., decision or choice)Man vs. SelfExternal – a character struggles against an outside forceMan vs. ManMan vs. NatureMan vs. technology, progressMan vs. SocietyMan vs. Supernatural
9 What is the Plot? Plot: Series of events that make up a story Climax Falling ActionResolutionRising ActionExposition
10 ExpositionPart of the story that introduces characters, setting, and conflicts
11 Setting The time and place of the story’s action Setting is part of the Exposition
12 Rising Action Consists of a series of complications. These occur when the main characters take action to resolve their problems and are met with further problems:FearHostilityThreatening situation
13 ClimaxThe turning point in the story: the high point of interest and suspenseClimaxRising Action or ComplicationsFalling Action
14 Falling ActionAll events following the climax or turning point in the story. These events are a result of the action taken at the climax.
15 Resolution (Dénouement) The end of the central conflict: it shows how the situation turns out and ties up loose ends
16 Point of ViewPerspective, or vantage point, from which the writer tells the story1st person- One of the characters is actually telling the story using the pronoun “I”3rd person limited- Centers on one character’s thoughts and actions.Omniscient- All-knowing narrator. May center on the thoughts and actions of any and all characters.
17 ThemeThe central message or insight into life revealed through a literary work.The “main idea” of the storyWhat the author wants us to take away from the story.
18 FlashbackThe present scene in the story is interrupted to flash backward and tell what happened in an earlier time
19 ForeshadowingClues the writer puts in the story to give the reader a hint of what is to come
20 SymbolAn object, person, or event that functions as itself, but also stands for something more than itself.Example: Scales function is to weigh things,but they are also a symbolof our justice system.
21 Figurative LanguageInvolves some imaginative comparison between two unlike thingsSimile – compares two unlike things using like or asExample: “I wandered lonely as a cloud”Metaphor – compares two unlike things (not using like or as)Example: Life is a roller coaster; it has lots of ups and downs.
22 Figurative LanguagePersonification – Gives human qualities to non-human things“The wind screamed.”“The fog crept in quietly.”
23 Irony A contrast between expectation and reality Examples: The high school student with the highest grades drops out of school.The traffic officer is arrested becauseof a backlog of unpaid parking tickets.
24 Types of IronyVerbal – saying one thing but meaning something completely different.Example: Calling a clumsy basketball player “Lebron James”Situational – A contradiction between what is expected and what really does happenExample: The Titanic sinking.Dramatic – occurs when the reader knows something important that the characters in the story do not know.Example: We know who the murderer is, but the character does not creates suspense
25 Allusion Reference to a statement, person, a place, or events from: LiteratureHistoryReligionMythologyPoliticsSportsExample: “I am surprised his nose was not growing like Pinocchio’s.”
26 SuspenseUncertainty or anxiety the reader feels about what is going to happen next in a story
27 Creating a picture in the reader’s mind through description ImageryLanguage that appeals to the senses.TouchTasteSightSoundSmellCreating a picture in the reader’s mind through descriptionExample: A seven-foot giant with rat-like teeth, greasy hair, hands like mitts, and musty, loose clothing
28 Tone The speaker’s or narrator’s attitude towards the subject Authors create tone through word choice and imagery.May be formal, informal, somber, playful, etc.
29 Mood The general feeling a piece of writing creates within the reader Example: You may feel saddened by what you read, or you may be roaring with laughter.