2 Characters: People, animals that take part in story ANTAGONIST- character working against the main character; usually evil, can be force of naturePROTAGONIST- main character of story, heroDYNAMIC- character who changes throughout storySTATIC - character who does NOT change throughout storyROUND- character who has many traits; we get to know this character in-depthFLAT- character who is described more simply; one-sided
3 CharacterizationThere are four ways that an author develops characters:Through their actionsThrough their speechThrough their thoughtsThrough what others say about them
4 Conflict Struggle between two opposing forces 6 main types of conflict man vs. man -man vs. natureman vs. self -man vs. societyman vs. technology man vs. supernaturalEach type falls into one of two categories:External: conflict between an outside force and the main characterInternal: occurs within a character
5 Theme Main ideas in a work of literature Usually about life or human natureA message, meaning, or moral the author wants you to learnExamples: Loyalty, friendship, overcoming obstacles
6 Point of View First Person 3rd Person character in story is telling the storyI, me, myReader only knows what the narrator is thinking.3rd PersonStoryteller is NOT one of the charactersHe, she, theyReader gets to know the thoughts of many characters.
7 FLASHBACK FORESHADOWING Something that happened before the beginning of a storyFORESHADOWINGuse of clues to hint at events that will occur later in the plot
8 IronySituational Irony: A contrast between what is expected to happen and what actually does.Verbal Irony: A contrast between what is said and what is meant.Dramatic Irony: When the reader knows something that other characters do not.
9 Imagery Imagery: The use of detailed descriptions to paint a picture. Imagery appeals to the five senses.Authors usually use sight imagery, but can be sound, taste, touch, or smell imagery.
10 Setting Time and Place of the action of the story It is important to the events and outcomes of the story.The setting ranges from large to small. In Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, for example…Large picture = America, mid-size city in the 1950’sSmall picture = Charlie’s home and the factory, one week in his life
11 Tone Attitude a writer takes towards a subject Reflects the feelings of a writerCan be sarcastic, humorous, serious, etc.
12 Mood The feeling or atmosphere that the author creates for the reader. Do not confuse Mood with Tone.The mood is the feeling you are supposed to get when reading the story.
13 SimileA comparison of two different things or ideas through the use of the words “like” or “as.”e.g., The warrior fought like a lion.
14 Metaphor A comparison without the use of like or as. e.g., Life is a box of chocolates.
15 PersonificationWhen an author gives human qualities to nonhuman things.e.g., The wind cried in the dark.
16 AllusionWhen an author refers to characters or events from history or other pieces of literaturee.g., She was beautiful like Venus, the Goddess of love.
17 Symbol Person Place Event or Object that stands for something beyond itselfE.g., A bird in a cage would symbolize lost freedom.
18 AllegoryWhen the events, characters, and setting of a story are all symbolic of life.