Allusion The reference to a well-known work of literature, famous person or historical event.
Antagonist The person of thing working against the protagonist
Characterization The method an author uses to reveal characters and their personalities.
Static Character One whose personality and values don’t change in the story
Dynamic Character One whose personality and values do change in the story.
Round Character One who has many dimensions to his/her personality
Flat Character A stereotyped character (dumb blonde, school nerd, etc) One personality trait
Direct Characterization The author directly tells about the character.
Indirect Characterization The character is revealed through his/her actions, dialogue, or what others says about him/her
Conflict The problem or struggle in the story between the antagonist and the protagonist. It triggers the action in the story Man vs man, man vs society, man vs self, man vs nature, man vs supernatural, man vs fate/destiny
Climax Usually the most intense point in a story. It is the moment the conflict is resolved
Figurative Language Language that interprets ideas beyond the ordinary, literal (real) meaning.
Figurative Language Examples Simile – comparison using like or as of two unlike things Metaphor – a comparison not using like or as of two unlike things Personification – giving human qualities to nonhuman things
Flashback Returning to an earlier time for the purpose of making something more clear
Foreshadowing Giving hints or clues of what is to come later in the story
Imagery Descriptive words or phrases that create sensory experiences (appealing to the five senses) for the reader.
Irony Situational – when there is a contradiction between what is expected to happen and what actually happens. Sometimes the contradiction is an unlikely coincidence.
More Irony Dramatic – when the reader or the audience sees a character’s mistakes but the character does not. Verbal – when the writer says one thing and means another
Mood The feeling a text arouses in the reader: happiness, peacefulness, sadness, gloom, fear, frustration, humor
Plot The sequence of events in a story which include an exposition (introduction), rising action, climax, falling action, resolution
Point of View The Vantage point from which a story is being told.
1 st Person Point of View the teller of the story is in the story – uses I, me
3 rd Person Point of View the teller of the story is not in the story – uses he, she, they –Omniscient – all knowing, the narrator knows more about the characters and events than any one character can know –Limited – the narrator tells only the thoughts and feelings of one character
Protagonist The main character in a story. It is the character whose story the reader follows.
Repetition Using the same word or phrase more than once for impact and effect.
Rhyme Scheme The pattern of end rhyme in a poem which can be charted as a, b, c etc.
Setting The time and place of the story Includes time of day, year, season, etc.
Sarcasm The use of praise to mock someone or something
Satire Making fun of human vice or weakness often using humor, sarcasm, or exaggeration in an attempt to change the weakness