Presentation on theme: "Literary Terms for Study"— Presentation transcript:
1 Literary Terms for Study Short StoriesLiterary Terms for Study
2 FictionStories that are made upNot trueUsually written in prose
3 Prose Standard form of spoken or written English used for writing Everything except poetryHas no rhythm or rhyme
4 Short Story Fiction work usually less than 40 pages Deals with a single conflict and theme
5 Exposition Beginning of story Introduces setting, characters and conflict
6 Conflict Struggle between two forces in a story Types of conflict: Man vs. ManMan vs. NatureMan vs. SupernaturalMan vs. SocietyMan vs. Self (internal conflict)
7 Rising Action Events in the story that lead to the climax Must be the obvious causes of the climaxThe climax cannot occur without the developments happening first
8 Climax Point of highest action or emotional intensity Turning point of the conflictThe nature of the conflict will change as a result
9 Falling Action Events after the climax Ties up loose ends of the story Is a result of the climaxLeads to final end of story
10 Resolution The final outcome of the story Tells how things end for the character(s)
11 Plot Sequence of events in a story The pattern in which a conflict is resolved
12 Protagonist Main character of the story Is followed by the action of the storyIs not always the “good guy”
13 Antagonist The person or force causing problems for the main character May be human, animal, storm, etc.Stories with internal conflict will have no antagonist
14 Round CharacterCharacters that have varied and often conflicting qualitiesEx. A student who fights a lot at school but is gentle and kind with small children.
15 Dynamic CharacterCharacters who begin one way then change as a result of the story’s eventsThese characters grow and evolve because of what happens to them in the story
16 Static CharacterCharacters who do not change but always stay the same throughout the story
17 CharacterizationMethods used by an author to reveal the looks, beliefs, motivations or personality of a characterTwo types of characterization:Direct characterization – author comes out and tells you exactly what the character is likeIndirect characterization – you must decide about the character based on character’s words and actions
18 Character traits Qualities of a character’s personality or appearance Blonde hair, blue eyes (appearance)Honest, fun-loving (personality)
19 ForeshadowingThe subtle revealing of clues that hint to events that will occur later in the story
20 Setting The time and place of the story Words or phrases that describe the time and place of the story reveal its settingCan affect actions and attitudes of characters
21 ToneThe attitude a narrator feels toward the subject of which he is speakingThe “voice” the narrator uses to talk about the characterExample: When your mom’s angry with you, you can tell by the tone of her voice and the words that she uses to talk to you or about you.
22 Verbal IronyWhen a character says something that can have multiple meaningsAn intentional, but true, statement that will mislead other characters.
23 Situational IronyWhen you get the opposite of what you expect in a situationSurprise ending of a story
24 Dramatic IronyWhen the audience is aware of information that the characters are unaware of
25 Theme The central message or lesson of a story Should be something the reader can apply to their own lives
26 Symbol/SymbolismUsing an object or repetitive theme to represent a larger ideaExample:Wedding ringsCrowsSkull and crossbones
27 Point of view The perspective from which a story is told Who’s voice is telling the story?How do they feel about the story they’re telling?What is their relationship to the events of the story?
28 First Person Point of View Story told from the view of someone involved in the story’s eventsWill use “I”, “Me”, “My”, “We” and “Us” to refer to their own involvement
29 Third Person Point of View When a story is told from the view of someone who did not take an active role in the storyTwo types of third person POV:Limited – can only give perspective with thoughts and feelings of one characterOmniscient – an all-knowing, God-like perspective; can tell thoughts and feelings of all characters at any time past or present
30 AllusionA reference to something famous or familiar from history, culture, literature, music, etc.Can be a direct mention or an indirect reference to
31 Mood Vibe or feeling you get from the story Can be determined by descriptions of the settings and characters or the author’s choice of words
33 SimileA comparison of two unlike things using the words “like” or “as”The winner of the race ran like the wind.The accident happened as quick as lightening.
34 MetaphorA comparison of two seemingly unlike things without the use of comparative words such as “like,” “as,” or “seem.”Will refer to the object as if it actually IS the other in some way.That test was a nightmare.My brother is a thorn in my side.
35 Repetition Saying something over and over. Could be a word, phrase, or visual imageHighlights or emphasizes important thingsAids in memory
36 ImageryThe use of descriptive phrases that appeal to different senses (sight, sound, taste, touch, smell)