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Theories of Motivation

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1 Theories of Motivation
Chapter 12 Motivation and Emotion Theories of Motivation

2 Introduction Why study Motivation & Emotion together?
Motivation refers to the set of factors that activate, direct and maintain behaviour, usually towards some goal. Emotion refers to a subjective feeling that includes arousal (heart pounding), cognitions (thoughts, values and expectations), and expressive behaviours (smiles, frowns, and running). We study them together because they are inseparable.

3 Biological Theories Instinct Drive Reduction Theory Arousal Theory

4 1. Instinct Theory (William James 1890)
Complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned Instincts: fixed, unlearned, genetically programmed patterns of behavior Examples of human behaviors are rooting, sucking, and grasping

5 2. Drive-Reduction Theory (Clark Hull)
Drive reduction theory is about motivation starting with a physiological need that directs a drive towards behavior that will satisfy the need and once it is met the state of balance also known as homeostasis is restored and that motivation decreases. Drives are internal conditions that relate to survival needs The drive state builds as deprivation continues Behavior is geared to reduce the need or deficit Eating, drinking, and breathing

6 3. Arousal Theory Organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal or stimulation that maximizes performance and that performance is diminished when arousal is too high or too low. Ex. When we are too aroused and become anxious you tend to be less likely to do well on a test “freeze up”. Whereas if you are under aroused and sleepy you can make careless mistakes.

7 Psychosocial Theories
Incentive Theory Cognitive Theories

8 1. Incentive Theory Motivation results from external stimuli that pulls the organism in certain direction. Incentives: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour. Opposite of Drive Reduction Theory because according to the DRT internal factors push people in certain directions. Ex. The sight of apple pie pulls us to eat a piece. Ex. The sight of something gross would drive us away from eating.

9 2. Cognitive Consistency Theory
Motivation is directly affected by attributions or how we interpret or think about our own and others actions. Ex. If we receive a high grade on a test and believe that this grade was the result of hard work, we would be motivated to study hard again. Ex. The opposite would be if you thought you just “lucked out”

10 Biopsychosocial Theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Humanistic Theory)

11 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Humanistic Theory)
This theory suggests that lower motives must be met before advancing to higher needs. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Each successive level of the hierarchy is addressed only after the preceding level's needs have been met The ultimate goal is self-actualization, which is complete fulfillment of one's potential to find self-fulfilment.

12 Psychological Needs Explained
Physiological Needs: Need to satisfy hunger and thirst. Safety Needs: Need to feel secure, safe and stable. Belonging and Love Needs: Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted, avoid loneliness and alienation. Esteem Needs: Need for self esteem, achievement, competence, independence, respect from others. Self- Actualization Needs: Need to live up to ones fullest and unique potential.

13 Achievement Motivation
Chapter 12 Motivation & Emotion Achievement Motivation

14 Achievement Motivation
The desire for significant accomplishment, excellence or success that constantly motivated behaviour. Marked by moderately difficult but achievable goals as its success may not lie in ability, but rather in motivation.

15 Causes Birth Order First born vs. second born… third born?
Cultural Influences Collectivist societies encourage group success Individualistic societies encourage individual success

16 Causes 2. Parenting (Can enhance achievement motivation)
Parents who emphasize excellence and provide affection for achievement. Encouraging children to attempt difficult tasks. Providing strategies to succeed rather than discouraging complaints about failures. Give praise and appropriate rewards for success. Encouraging the child to accept new challenges after success.

17 Causes 3. Belief/Expectation
“What your mind can conceive and believe you can achieve.” Conviction of self-efficacy (a persons belief in their own competence.

18 Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation: the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake or to be effective. Extrinsic Motivation: the desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment. Can we think of some examples of both types of Motivation?

19 Keys to Motivating Others
Create intrinsic rewards Identify people’s motives Set clear goals Have the right leadership style

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