Motivation RAK College of Dental Science VI Semester BDS 2011 Dr. Amal Gamal Shehata Associate Professor
Outline Definition of motivation. Types of motives. Sources of motivation. Theories of motivation. Homeostasis and drives. Relevance of study motivation for dental students.
Introduction A motivation is a condition that energizes behavior and gives it direction. It is experienced subjectively as a conscious desire – the desire for food, for drink. Most of us can choose whether or not to act on our desires. We can even choose not to think about the desires that we refuse to act on. Motivation directs behavior toward a particular incentive that produce pleasure or alleviates an unpleasant state.
An internal process that causes us to move toward a goal. Motivation Goal
Types of Motives Primary Motive: Innate (inborn) motives based on biological needs we must meet to survive Secondary Motive: Based on learned needs, drives, and goals
Motivation Internal Sources External Sources Incentives: Any external motivating stimulus, such as Biological Needs: A state of physical deprivation that causes an imbalance within the body (e.g., body temperature, blood sugar, water content). Intrinsic Motivation : Extrinsic Motivation
Motivation Internal Sources External Sources Incentives: Any external motivating stimulus, such as Drive: A state of arousal or tension that is produced by a biological need.
Motivation Internal Sources External Sources Incentives: Any external motivating stimulus, such as Social Motive: A type of motivation acquired through experience and interaction with other people; becomes part of your personality.
Theories of Motivation Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs McClelland’s Achievement- Power-Affiliation Theory Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory Drive- Reduction Theory
According to Clark hall (1952) human being have internal biological need which motivate us to act in a particular way. This Drive or Need is internal and it must be reduced.
Drive-Reduction Theory The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. Drive-reducing behaviors (eating, drinking) Need (e.g., for food, water) Drive (hunger, thirst)
Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs theory Maslow assumes that what motivates people is unmet needs. According to Maslow, the needs that motivate people fall into five basic categories: – physiological needs (the most basic need), – security needs, – social needs, – esteem needs, and – self-actualization needs (the highest-level need).
Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological needs are the ones required for survival. Security needs involve keeping oneself free from harm. Social needs are the desire for love, friendship, and companionship. Esteem needs are the need for self-esteem and the respect of others. Self-actualization needs describe the desire to live up to one’s full potential.
Maslow’s Hierarchy Source: William G. Huitt, 2000 http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/regsys/maslow.html
McClelland’s Achievement-Power- Affiliation Theory This motivation theory is based on the assumption that through life experiences, people develop various needs. The three needs include: The need for achievement The desire to do something better than it has been done before. The need for power the desire to control, influence, or be responsible for other people. The need for affiliation the desire to maintain close and friendly personal relationships.
Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory B. F. Skinner says that people behave as they do because of the kind of consequences they experience as a result of their behavior. people keep doing things that lead to consequences they like, and avoid doing things that have undesirable consequences. For example, praise feels good, so people tend to do things that get them praised.
Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory Consequences can be thought of as: A.Reinforcement. B.Punishment. C.Behavior Modification. For long term results, positive reinforcement is more effective than punishment. Punishment can lead to what is called learned helplessness.
Homeostasis Body equilibrium; balance Homeostasis involves a set point,or goal value, for the ideal internal state. Temperature regulation is an example of homeostasis. Sensors for this are located in various parts of the body,including the hypothalamus.adjustments are either automatic responses “ shivering “ or putting on a sweater.
Relevance of Study Motivation for Dental Students GUESS ?