Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Emotion. ?Questions? Why does Brandon play football with such intensity? Why do people try to climb Mount Everest or cross the Atlantic."— Presentation transcript:
?Questions? Why does Brandon play football with such intensity? Why do people try to climb Mount Everest or cross the Atlantic in a balloon? Why are some people obsessed with fantasy football or baseball…while others cannot tell you the difference between the Panthers and the Braves? Why do fools fall in love?
Motivation Motivation: An internal state that activates behavior and directs it towards a goal. Huh? In other words, motivation includes various psychological factors that cause you to act a certain way at a certain time. The words anger, fear, pain, starving, etc…can all trigger certain motivations within your body. So how do psychologists attempt to explain these things?
Instinct Theory In the 1900’s, William McDougall (1908) proposed that humans were driven by a variety of instincts. Instincts: Are natural or inherited tendencies of an organism to make a specific response to certain environmental stimuli without involving reason. For example, salmon have an instinctive urge to swim thousands of miles through ocean waters and up rivers until they reach the exact gravel spot where they were spawned years earlier. They then lay their eggs and die.
Instinct Theory Psychologist William James proposed that humans have instincts such as cleanliness, curiosity, parental love, sociability, and sympathy. Eventually, psychologists realized a flaw in the Instinct Theory. Instincts do not explain behavior; they simply label behavior.
Drive-Reduction Theory Something that motivates us moves us to an action. The thing that motivates us starts with a need that leads to a drive. Need: Biological or psychological requirement of an organism. A need results from a lack of something that is desirable or useful. We have both physiological and psychological needs.
Drive-Reduction Theory Every need produces a drive. Drive: A state of tension produced by a need that motivates an organism towards a goal. We all have different drives with different goals! For example, hunger drives us to eat and fatigue drives us to rest.
Drive – Reduction Theory Drive-Reduction Theory: When an organism is deprived of something it needs or wants (such as food or water), it becomes tense and agitated. To relieve this tension, it engages in more or less random activity. So, biological needs “drive” an organism to act, and the organism strives to maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis: The tendency of all organisms to correct imbalances and deviations from their normal state.
The Incentive Theory The drive-reduction theory of motivation emphasizes the internal states of the organism; however, the incentive theory stresses the role of the environment in motivating behavior. While a drive is something inside of us that causes us to act, our actions are directed towards a goal, or an incentive. Incentive: An external stimulus, reinforcer, or reward, that motivates behavior. Question: How can a “reward” be used in a negative way to produce results?
The Incentive Theory While drives push us to reduce needs, incentives pull us to obtain them. For example, hunger may cause us to walk into a cafeteria, but the incentive for our action is the sandwich we hope to eat. What is another example of the Incentive Theory?
Cognitive Theory Cognitive Psychologists seek to explain motivation by looking at forces inside and outside of us that energize us to move. They propose that we act in particular ways at particular times as a result of extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. Extrinsic Motivation: Engaging in activities that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain external incentives. Intrinsic Motivation: Engaging in activities because they are personally rewarding or because they fulfill our beliefs and expectations.
Cognitive Theory Example Example: If you spend hours and hours playing basketball because you wish to excel at the sport, you are following intrinsic motivation! Example: If you hours playing basketball because your parents want you to excel at basketball, you are following extrinsic motivation.
Biological Motives Hunger – What motivates you to seek food? Often you eat because of the sight and smell of, say, pizza makes you want to go to a restaurant. At other times you eat because of habit. For example, if you always eat at 8pm, you become hungry every day around 8pm. Water, Air, etc.
Social Motives Measuring need based solely on achievement. I need the approval of certain people or groups. Fear of Failure Fear of Success
According to Abraham Maslow, there are 3 basic types of needs: Fundamental Needs: Biological drives that must be satisfied to maintain life. Psychological needs: The urge to belong and give and receive love, and the urge to acquire esteem. Self-Actualization Needs: The pursuit of knowledge and beauty or whatever is required for the realization of one’s unique potential.
Emotions What drives Michael Jordan to perfect his basketball game? How did he feel when he hit all of those winning shots? Was he tired, thirsty, excited, nervous, or happy? It is very difficult to draw a clear line between motives and Emotions. So what are the differences? Well, let’s take a look shall we.
Emotion Emotion: A set of complex reactions to stimuli involving subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and observable behavior.
James – Lange Theory Both William James and Carl Lange came to the conclusion at about the same time that “we use the word emotion to describe our visceral, or gut, reactions to the things that take place around us. Because they came up with this theory at the same time, it was named the James- Lange Theory.
The Cannon – Bard Theory The Cannon – Bard Theory: According to this theory, certain experiences activate the thalamus, and the thalamus sends messages to the cortex and to the other body organs. The theory states that the brain sends two reactions – arousal and the experience of emotion. Yet, one does not cause the other. So, when we use the word emotion, we are referring to the simultaneous burst of activity in the brain and gut reactions.
More about the various Theories See Text Page 335 for more info!