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Motivation Ch 9 PSY 1000.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation Ch 9 PSY 1000."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation Ch 9 PSY 1000

2 Motivation Process by which activities are started, directed, and continued Meets our physical and psychological needs or wants This is what moves us.. Physical need of hunger or thirst would move us to get something to eat or drink Psychological desire to not be lonely would lead us to call a friend Anger could lead us to exercise

3 Types of Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation
Perform and action that leads to an outcome outside of self Work for money Decreases creativity Intrinsic Motivation Perform an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying Good grades to feel proud Physical challenges Becomes ours If we do not get pleasure in our jobs, we go to soley get money We may work, but the job becomes ours we feel proud of what we do

4 Approaches to Motivation
Instinct Biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior William McDougall proposed 18 instincts for humans Flight, running away Aggressiveness Gathering possessions Frued Psychoanalytical Theory Concepts of instincts reside in the id, basic human needs and drives This theory has faded since it is able to describe the behavior but not explain it Theorists believed that humans motivation is a reaction to basic instincts, aggression to protect what is ours. Sexual arousal to reproduce Such as These theorists did not add more than just names More and more instinct were added as time when on

5 Approaches to Motivation
Drive Reduction Behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drive to satisfy need and reduce tension Primary Drive Survival needs of the body such as hunger, thirst Body is in a state of imbalance Acquired (secondary) Drive Learned through experience or conditioning Money Social approval Homeostasis Body maintains a steady state Does not explain all human behavior Need is a requirement of some material, food buys both Drive is the tension created by a need Primary reinforces Secondary reinforces Keep level Why do we eat when not hungary Some people unsteady their body..bungy jumping, taking risks

6 Approaches to Motivation
Arousal The need for stimulation Curiosity, playing, exploration People have an optimal level of tension Some tasks may have a high level of arousal Anxiety over a test Nervous over a first date Maintaining an optimal level may require increasing or decreasing tension Sensation Seekers Need more complex and varied sensory experiences than do others We need to feel challenged. We need to have some level of tension in life to keep moving I need to have a lot of things at once to stay motivated Talking to a friend in class is no big deal Talking in front of the whole class may cause anxiety Students that travel to other countries Do crazy things for fun If you plan things out, low


8 Approaches to Motivation
Incentive Things that attract or lure people into action External stimulus and its rewarding properties No need No tension Expectancy-value Theories Actions of humans cannot be fully understood without understanding the persons beliefs and values Dessert We learn from our past. If we have had a bad experience with a certain food, place to eat,

9 Approaches to Motivation
Humanistic Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Several level of needs to fulfill before a person achieves the highest level of personality fulfillment Self-actualization the highest level Person is fully satisfied with all the lower levels in their lives Seldom reached

10 Food water rest Cognitive, person learns for the sake of learning Artistic typical for artistic people, but all beauty is different for each of us Can shift down. Lose a job, lose a loved one. May think you are on the right path but your understanding is wrong

11 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Many management programs are based on this model Issues No concrete research or study Based on Maslow’s observations Studies of Americans Cross cultural needs /order of needs may differ Self actualization may never be a priority if you have to keep the job you have even if you hate it. That is true in illinois valley

12 Self Determination Theory
Three inborn and universal needs Help a person gain a complete sense of self and healthy relationships with others Autonomy Need to be in control of one’s own behavior and goals Competence Need to be able to master the challenging tasks of one’s life Relatedness Need to feel a sense of belonging, intimacy, and security in relationships with others This theory pulls together maslow theory in three small needs A person can achieve these needs if they are in a supportive environment We feel good that we are in control

13 Emotions Feeling aspect of consciousness

14 Physiology of Emotions
When experiencing an emotion Arousal is created by the sympathetic nervous system Many emotions have the same physiological response Heart rate increases Body temp changes

15 Behavior of Emotions Facial expressions Body movements Actions
Most are culturally universal Display rules When the emotion is displayed Japenese have strict rules of showing emotions in public Also different among men and women

16 Subjective Experience: Labeling Emotions
Interpreting the feelings by giving it a label Anger, sad, happy Learned response influenced by their language and culture Goal of psychologists engaged in cross cultural research is to understand the meaning of a persons mental and emotional state without interpreting them incorrectly

17 Theories of Emotion Original thought of emotions were Feeling emotion
Behavior that responded to emotion Event leads to Arousal leads to Interpretation or Emotion or Reasoning or Cognitive labels Below you will see the theories we will discuss Event can be car accident Break up Fight with friend Losing a game

18 James-Lange Theory Event Arousal Interpretation Emotion
We will read what our body says and then label the emotion

19 Cannon-Bard Theory Event Arousal Emotion
Body responds and we label emotion at the same time

20 Schachter-Singer and cognitive Arousal
Event Arousal Cognitive Labels Emotion Physical arousal and the labeling must occur before the emotion is experienced

21 Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Event Arousal/change of facial expression Emotion What our facial expression is will go to the brain and the emotion will intensify Emotion being expressed can cause the emotion HAPPY Happy our brain will send off happy signals

22 Lazarus and the Cognitive-Mediational Theory
Event Interpretation Emotion Arousal Event causes us to interpret what is going on then we label the emotion and our body responds As you can see many of these theories have issues and not all of them are fully researched and solid. But each of them do have some validity

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