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Ancient Civilization of India

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Civilization of India"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Civilization of India
The Indus River, Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro, Aryans, Hinduism, Buddhism, Castes, the Guptas and More


3 View of Mohenjo-Daro towards the Great Bath

4 Street in Mohenjo-Daro with Covered Drain


6 Lord Rama

7 Brahma the Creator

8 The Buddha

9 Khajuraho



12 mumbai

13 Early Civilizations in India – 2 Cities– Harappa y Mohenjo-Daro
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro – near the Indus River (currently Pakistan) Well organized cities and government Agriculture and Commerce/Trade Many gods, including sacred animals Declined for many reasons, some unknown

14 Aryans arrive from the North
Aryans, a group of persons united by their similar languagues, come from southern Russia to the northeast of India; later to the Deccan Plateau We know them largely through the Vedas, a collection of religious writings written in Sanskrit Changed from a nomadic life to agriculture Aryans formed a social structure with many levels, or castes First worshiped many gods, based on nature

15 Caste System – Rigid Social Categories
Your “caste” or “jati” determined both your job/ economic position and your social position There are 1000s of castes in India, based on occupation and your family network 4 major social classes, called varnas: Brahmans – in charge of religious ceremonies Kshatriyas – originally warriors Vaisyas – commoners; merchants and farmers Sudras – peasants, manual laborers; most Indians Below everyone – Untouchables; collect trash/bodies

16 Hinduism Developed by Aryans sometime after 1500 B.C.
Single spiritual force in the world – Brahman Believed in reincarnation – soul is reborn in different form after death Final goal – union with Brahma Karma – force generated by person’s actions Dharma – divine law – all must do their duty Justified class divisions; could rise above your caste only after death Yoga – way to achieve union with God

17 Brahma the Creator

18 Buddhism Began after 550 B.C., in northern India
Founder – Siddhartha Gautama, or Buddha, the “Enlightened One” Siddhartha was rich man who became aware of sorrow, tried to find cure for suffering, true meaning of life Must abandon worldly cares to find true meaning; must search for wisdom Goal: Achieve Nirvana – end of self & reunion with the Great World Soul Would spread from India to China and SE Asia

19 Four Noble Truths Ordinary life is full of suffering
Suffering caused by desire to satisfy ourselves Must end desire for selfish goals; see others as extensions of ourselves Way to end desire is to follow the “Middle Path” There are 8 steps to the middle path: right view, intention, speech, action, work, effort, mindfulness and concentration

20 Powerful Empires of India – Mauryan Empire
In 321 BC, Chandragupta Maurya, started the first Indian empire; lasted from 321 BC to 185 BC Capital – Pataliputra – Splendid city Well-organized bureaucracy; effective but cruel Grandson Asoka – most successful emperor Conquered region of Kalinga, but then gave up violence and converted to Buddhism Sent missionaries out to spread Buddhism After Asoka, Mauryan Empire fell apart 1st empire to unify all of India


22 Powerful Empires of India – The Guptas
From 320 AD to 540 AD – Golden Age under the Gupta regime Peace and prosperity; decentralized government, elected by artisans and businessmen Advances in philosophy, literature, mathematics (arabic numbers, zero), other areas of knowledge

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