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Ancient Indian Civilizations 2500 B.C. – 500 A.D..

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Indian Civilizations 2500 B.C. – 500 A.D.."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Indian Civilizations 2500 B.C. – 500 A.D.

2 Indus River Valley South of the Himalayas Difficult to enter valley Ganges River flows through fertile valley Indus River flows across drier plain

3 Indus River Valley (cont) Monsoons are winds that mark the seasons Fall/Winter = little rain Spring/Summer heavy rains Too little/late = crops fail

4 Early Civilizations Harappa and Mohenjo Daro Large cities, carefully planned Water systems, public baths, and brick sewers Strong central fortress or citadel

5 Early Civilizations (cont) Indo-Aryans From central Asia Written language, Sanskrit Caste System Class structure that determines a person’s occupation, economic potential, and social status In part, based on skin color

6 Early Civilizations (cont) Mauryan Empire Strong army equipped with elephants and chariots Rigid bureaucracy Aśoka Greatest ruler, converted to Buddhism Set up hospitals for people and animals Ordered a system of shade trees and shelters for travelers

7 Early Civilizations (cont) Gupta Rulers Era of prosperity/trade Hinduism becomes dominant religion Religious tolerance of Buddhism Later extravagance by rulers led to decline

8 232 B.C. Chandragupta II Chandragupta Maurya becomes founder of Mauryan Empire


10 Hinduism Appears polytheistic, but it is monistic God is one, but goes by many names

11 Hinduism (cont) Believe in reincarnation Souls are reborn into another body Dharma – person’s moral duty in this life Karma – good/bad force created by actions Live until you get it right, Nirvana Practice yoga, mental/physical exercises that bring the body and soul together

12 Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha or “Enlightened One” Led privileged life until he became aware of human suffering Taught ethics and selflessness Reincarnation and nirvana were available to everyone

13 Siddhartha Gautama’s eight not carrying out harsh or mean thoughts

14 Cultural Achievements Education Higher castes = formal education Lower castes = crafts and trades Algebra Astronomy Medicine – inoculations from diseases

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