Presentation on theme: "Ancient India & China India’s Geography Located along the southern edge of Asia Highest Mountains in the world located here (Himalaya) Ganges River."— Presentation transcript:
India’s Geography Located along the southern edge of Asia Highest Mountains in the world located here (Himalaya) Ganges River most important to early civilizations Monsoons important for rainfall factor
India’s Early Civilizations Early civilizations developed in the Indus River Valley around 3000 B.C. Thousands of settlements found in the region including the Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Harappo and Mohenjo- Daro Advanced civilization with cities as large as 35,000 Carefully planned with grids of streets and walled neighborhoods Public wells, bathroom, and advanced drainage system
Harappo and Mohenjo-Daro Religion and political power linked closely Economy based on agriculture including wheat, barley, and peas Traded extensively with Mesopotamia
Aryans A nomadic Indo- European people that excelled at war. Move from Asia to India and give up lives of war for farming Develop written language of Sanskrit for religious rituals, legends, and chants.
Caste System Caste system- social order of India; very strict brought by Aryans Set social hierarchy that has specific rules for each stage Individuals can only work jobs suitable for that caste only marry within class May be reborn into a higher caste, but never move in one lifetime
The Five Major Classes 1. Brahmins (priests and scholars) 2. Kshatriyas (rulers, warriors) 3. Vaisyas (merchants, traders, farmers) 4. Sudras (peasants) 5. Pariahs (“Untouchables” – perform unpleasant tasks)
Twice Born- nothing to do with reincarnation, but rather a ritual ceremony similar to a Bar Mitzvah or Christian Confirmation – a coming of age ceremony!
Interesting Fact Each varna must observe certain rules of purity. The Brahmins are considered so pure that they may never eat food prepared by anyone but another Brahmin. This means that Brahmins cannot go to a restaurant where the staff are not also Brahmins. No food for you, non- Brahmins!
Bhagavad Gita This is the last 18 chapters of the Mahabharata; stresses that the greatest way to fulfillment is to act according to social status
Bhagavad Gita is the story of Krishna, a human form of the god Vishnu, that teaches devotion to Vishnu will lead to salvation in the afterlife
Hinduism Based on the interpretations of sacred texts – the Vedas Teaches that everything in the world has Brahma Brahma- refers to Indian God Atman- the essence of an individual Monism- Hindu belief that Brahma and Atman are one
Reincarnation Reincarnation-rebirth of the soul on path to total salvation Dharma- fulfillment of one’s duty to help the soul be reborn to a higher caste Karma- positive or negative force generated by a person’s actions- this determines next caste level Equation- Do Dharma=good Karma=higher social status in next life
Reincarnation, cont. Ultimate goal is to complete rebirth cycle and unite with Brahma Chief God = Brahma There are other gods that represent Him, but according to Hindus, they are monotheistic, not polytheistic Most important animal to Hindus is the cow; this is why many Hindus do not eat beef
Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama (aka Buddha)- wealthy son of a prince who wanted to discover truth and enlightenment His two main questions: (1) Why does suffering exist/ (2) What is the value of life and death? Went out to search for truth for six years! Became known as “The Enlightened One”
Four Noble Truths Four noble truths- basic beliefs of Buddhism (1)All human life involves suffering and sorrow (2)Desiring only pleasure and material goods leads to suffering and sorrow (3) Giving up desires and material goods help achieve nirvana Nirvana- perfect peace; soul released from reincarnation (4) Eightfold path leads to denial of desire and achievement of nirvana