Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

3.1 Early Civilizations In India

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "3.1 Early Civilizations In India"— Presentation transcript:

1 3.1 Early Civilizations In India
Big Idea: Changes to the Physical environment & the migration of Aryans led to major changes in India’s culture. Main Idea: How can location play a part in the development of a civilization? Indus River valley Largest civilizations Agriculture Trade City development Regions Mountain Valley Dry plateau Fertile coastal plains Separation of people by landscape can lead to diverse cultures

2 Geography of India Subcontinent – part of a large continent
Mts., rivers plains North-Himalaya Mts South -Ganges River Valley West- Indus River. South -Deccan Plateau (interior-lush plains) Monsoons Seasonal wind (rain) Summer Winter Subcontinent- A large landmass, such as India, that is part of a continent but is considered either geographically or politically as an independent entity. India made of multiple cultures/ 110 languages/ geography has help with the many distinct cultures. Himalaya Mts-(highest mountains in the world.) Directly south the Ganges River valley Fertile area Chief area for civilization to grow Why would this be because of what we know from previous cultures? Because of the flooding and the rich soil. West- Indus River Valley cradle of Indian civilization Modern time we call this area Pakistan ( dry Plateau area ) Ancient times it was moderate climate and cradle of Indian Civilization South- Deccan Plateau- South of the two major rivers which are? Ganges and Indus The interior of the plateau is dry, but the east and West coast is lush plains where most of the population lives. Monsoons-Primary feature of climate-seasonal wind pattern in S. Asia.- summer monsoons June- Sept brings rain to the west coast ( Arabian sea) Mumbai receives these wet winds. Wettest place on earth are the mts. of Northeast India, where farmers depend on monsoon rains. What are these monsoons considered a form of? Irrigation Winter monsoons. Oct- Feb (dry winds). Brings rain to the east coast. Northeast Mt one of the wettest places on earth

3 Indus River Valley 3000B.C.-1500B.C.
Harappan Civilization Cities-Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. Grid pattern Public wells, bathrooms. Waste water drainage system trash chutes Religion & government closely linked Divine Right Economy Farming Trade with Mesopotamia Copper, precious stones and cotton. Not sure how Indus Valley came to an end Indus river valley civilizations were well organized and advanced. Starter question ( what kind of public services does your city provide?) A public service is…. a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. Examples – Electricity Education Health care Law enforcement Military Public library Public security Public transportation Waste management Water supply network Cities-Harappa (Huh-Ra-puh) and Mohenjo Daro. (moh-hehn-joh Dahr-oh) Carefully planned walled cities /grid- explain that this is the same for union ( depict example) Public services Public wells- provided water for the people bathrooms Waste water carried out to drains located under the streets, out of the city walls (sewage pits). Had trash chutes-that sent trash to bins on the street Religion , government Power based on -divine assistance. What other civilization did the same thing? Egyptians & Mesopotamia Religion and political power linked. Palace and temple linked in a citadel ( fortress) How is that different from today? We have separation of church and state Economy /farming / trading. Flooding allowed for rich soil Mesopotamia and Sumerian Copper, precious stones and cotton. Migration Interaction Not sure how Indus Valley came to an end ( natural disaster/ new ppl migration)

4 Vedic Age Sanskrit written language
Aryans Arrive . Indo-Europeans moved across Hindu Kush Mts. political control of India. strong warriors Nomadic – move place -place Cow/ Bulls Rajahs- war leaders / chiefs control kingdoms Sanskrit writing oral stories “Vedas.” India’s early history Vedic age-Of or relating to the Veda or Vedas, the variety of Sanskrit in which they are written, or the Hindu culture that produced them. Indo-European ppl from central Asia began to move to Europe or southern Asia ( Iran –India) Aryans main group ( tribal warriors) extended control throughout India eventually. Aryans and Dravidians ( Indus descendants) mix = new culture) Introduced iron which they acquired from the Hittites in central Asia= iron plow/ stronger/ irrigation ditches Rajahs-were war leaders or chiefs. Leaders of small states Warred with each other Sanskrit written language Why was it important to have a written language? oral stories “Vedas.” India’s early history World of many Kingdoms Who ruled these kingdoms? Rajahs

5 Vedic Age 2) Kshartiyas (kuh SHAT ree yuhz)- warriors and Rulers.
Daily Life in Ancient India- Family centered. Patriarchal (male dominated) High class men educated guru(teacher). Women subordinate suttee ritual. Social Classes Aryan Ideals –caste system Varnas ( social groups) Brahmins- priest / high class Kshatriyas- warriors /rulers Vaisyas-commoners/traders/farmers Sudras –peasants/slaves Untouchables –outside caste-lowest of low Daily Life in Ancient India- Family centered. Extended- all extended family lived under one roof ( 3 generations) patriarchal- oldest men held legal authority over whole family What could this mean for other family member? Had final say over financial and family member. Inherited property High class young men were educated with a guru(teacher). 12yrs of study before marriage divorce uncommon-Could take second wife if first could not bear a child Women Had a dowry when married to husbands family – if not marry burden on family-Parents paid for until married subordinate displayed by suttee ritual. (throw herself on husband’s burial fire pyre) “ Greek visitor reported that he saw the women do it freely and gladly. Those who did not disgraced. Social Class-caste society (social classes). Reflect Aryan ideas, divide into 4 varnas or social groups. Based on religious purity – those who where higher up were more pure Caste is actually from the Portuguese- Indian call the caste Jati Caste determined what job you could have, who you could marry, and who you could socialize with-borne into it 1)Brahmins-priests, highest class 2) Kshartiyas (kuh SHAT ree yuhz)- warriors and Rulers. 3) Vaisyas (VIS yuhz)-farmers, herders, traders, merchants, and commoners 4)Sudra (SOO druhz)-slaves, peasants, servants, and non-Aryans. Largest part of pop Untouchables – outside the caste system- things like pick up dead bodies/ trash

6 The Caste System WHO IS… The mouth? The arms? The legs? The feet?
Brahmins WHO IS… Kshatriyas The mouth? The arms? The legs? The feet? Outside the caste? Vaishyas Aryans compared the varnas to parts of the body head- teaches Arms –defend Legs – supply needs Feet- support society Shudras

7 Religions Principle of Hinduism
Aryan beliefs blend with Dravidian =Hinduism. Hinduism Religious beliefs of Aryans. From Vedas, single force (Brahman) -ultimate reality YOGA -oneness with God. Human-like gods ( 3 main gods- Holy Trinity) Brahman ( Creator) Vishnu (Preserver) Shiva (Destroyer) .p72 Principle of Hinduism 1. Reincarnation- reborn different form 2. Karma-determines rebirth 3. DHARMA- Divine law Jainism -All people do their duty. Religions- Aryan Beliefs blend with Dravidian to create Hindu Hinduism Religious beliefs of Aryans. Comes from Vedas (collection of hymns and ceremonies) believe in existence of single force in the universe, a form of ultimate reality (Brahman). Goal was to merge with Brahman after death – duty of the individual self ( atam ) seek the ultimate reality only way to be with Braham Individual was to know this ultimate reality. Develop practice of YOGA to achieve oneness with God. Dreamless sleep- senses and mind at rest Human-like gods develop Brahman the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Shiva the Destroyer.p72 Different expressions of Brahman, made more sense to the Indian people – gave them actual solid gods to believe in Principle of Hinduism Reincarnation (soul is reborn in a different form after death.) Karma (person’s actions determines reincarnation ) Karma ruled by DHARM (divine law). All people do their duty. Depending on class duty in life varies- one way to improve next life Rich have to do more

8 Buddhism Founder Siddharta Gautama (Budda- enlightened one)
Principles of Buddhism 1. Denied reality of material world NIRVANA (ultimate reality) end of the self reunion with Great World soul. 4 noble truths page 75 The middle path Northern India founder was Siddharta Gautama, known as Buddha (the enlightened one). Born rich Married 16 one day discovers the pain of poverty. Spent life seeking the cure for human suffering. Gave up everything, left family, and seek true meaning of life/ tried asceticism – practice self denial to achieve ultimate reality starvation/ left this practice While meditation under a tree found true meaning of life See the world in a new way Principles of Buddhism Denied reality of material world Physical surroundings are an illusion. Pain comes from attachments to things of this world. Let go sorrow forgotten Let go and wisdom (Bodhi) comes achieve NIRVANA (ultimate reality), the end of the self and reunion with the Great World soul. Rejected Caste system Taught that all human beings could reach nirvana as a result of their behavior in this life. Appealing to the poor Why? Did not worship gods More of a philosophy to live by

9 Section 3-1 Review What is the highest mountain in the world? Himalaya
The priestly class of Indian society was what? The Brahmins What were the major ancient cities of the Indus River valley? Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro

10 Section 3-1 Review Reincarnation is the Hindu belief that the individual soul does what? Is reborn in a different form Who were the Indo-Europeans who invaded northern India? Aryans In Hindu belief, karma is a force that what? Determines how a person will be reborn

11 Section 3-1 Review What is a set of rigid social categories?
Caste system Siddhartha denied the reality of what? The material world Was it Buddhism or Hinduism with the belief in a single, universal force called Brahman? Hinduism

12 Section 3-1 Review The Aryans developed a writing system called Sanskrit to do what? Record their religious writings and legends

Download ppt "3.1 Early Civilizations In India"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google