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World History Chapter Three India & China (3000 B.C. – A.D. 500)

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Presentation on theme: "World History Chapter Three India & China (3000 B.C. – A.D. 500)"— Presentation transcript:

1 World History Chapter Three India & China (3000 B.C. – A.D. 500)

2 Objectives 1. Explain how geography influenced the development in India & China 2. Identify characteristics of these civilizations

3 Objectives 3. Explain political & social structures in these countries 4. Describe the role of religion 5. List the contributions of each civilization

4 Section One: Early Civilization in India

5 I. The Land of India Indian subcontinent, located along the southern edge of Asia, shaped like a triangle Composed of mountain ranges, river valleys, a dry interior plateau & fertile coastal plains

6 The Land of India Himalaya, the highest mountains in the world
Ganges River, located on a rich valley, one of the chief regions of Indian culture Deccan, a hilly & dry plateau that extends from the Ganges Valley to the southern tip of India


8 The Land of India Monsoon – a seasonal wind pattern in Southern Asia the blows warm, moist air from the southwest during the summer, bringing heavy rains, & cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter (p.72) Farmers depend on the rains to grow crops


10 II. India’s First Civilization
Between 3000 B.C. & 1500 B.C. More than a thousand settlements in this region Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro


12 A. Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro
Planned cities Constructed of mud bricks baked in ovens & were square Advanced drainage system Well organized government

13 B. Rulers & the Economy Divine assistance Religion & political power closely linked Economy based on farming

14 Rulers & the Economy Trade with city-states in Mesopotamia Trade was carried by ship via the Persian Gulf

15 III. The Arrival of the Aryans
Floods, earthquakes & climate change weakened the civilization Arrival of the Aryans brought it to an end

16 A. Who Were the Aryans? Around 1500 B.C.
Aryans, A group of Indo-European nomadic peoples, who came out of central Asia moved across the Hindu Kush mountain range Created a new Indian society based on Aryan culture & institutions


18 B. Aryan Ways of Life Pastoral people, with a strong warrior tradition Became farmers, using the iron plow & irrigation Developed irrigation systems

19 Aryan Ways of Life Had no written language
Sanskrit - the first writing system of the Aryans, developed around 1000 B.C. (p.74) Wrote down religious rituals, legends & chants

20 Sanskrit

21 Aryan Ways of Life Rajas - An Aryan leader or prince (p.74) Carved out small states & fought one another

22 IV. Society in Ancient India
Set of social institutions & class divisions

23 A. The Caste System Aryans social institutions & class divisions
Caste system – a set of rigid categories in ancient India that determined a person’s occupation & economic potential as well as his or her position in society, based partly on skin color (p.75)

24 The Caste System Caste – on of the five major divisions of Indian classes in ancient times 1. Brahmans, priest class 2. Kshatriyas, warriors

25 The Caste System 3. Vaisyas, commoners 4. Sudras, peasants (darker-skinned natives) 5. Untouchables, trash collector & morticians (5%) of population

26 The Caste System

27 B. The Family in Ancient India
Basic unit of Indian society Extended family Patriarchal

28 The Family in Ancient India
Ritual of suttee Required a wife to throw herself on her dead husband’s flaming funeral pyre

29 V. Hinduism Hinduism – the major Indian religion system, which had its origins in the religious beliefs of the Aryans who settled in India after 1500 B.C. (p.77) Vedas, collection of hymns & religious ceremonies

30 Hinduism Brahman, a form of ultimate reality or God
Individual self, or atman Reincarnation – the rebirth of an individual’s soul in a different form after death (p.77)

31 http://images. google. com/imgres. imgurl=http://www. aperfectworld

32 Hinduism After many existences the soul may unite with Brahman Final goal is a union with Brahman


34 Hinduism Karma – in Hinduism, the force generated by a person’s actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life (p.77) if they are reborn as a person

35 Hinduism Dharma – in Hinduism, the divine law that rules karma, it requires all people to do their duty based on their status in society (p.77) Duties vary with one’s caste

36 Hinduism Justified the upper class & gave hope to the poor Yoga – a method of training developed by the Hindus that is supposed to lead to oneness with God (p.77)

37 Hinduism More than 33,000 deities Brahma the creator Vishnu the Preserver Siva the Destroyer

38 http://images. google. com/imgres. imgurl=http://www. jain. 8k

39 VI. Buddhism Buddhism – a religious doctrine introduced in northern India in the Sixth century B.C. by Siddartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, or “Enlightened One” (p.78) Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism

40 Confucius Buddha

41 A. The Story of the Buddha
Witnessed death, disease & old age Ascetic – a person who practices self-denial to achieve an understanding of ultimate reality (p.78) Abusing his body, did not bring enlightenment

42 B. The Basic Principles of Buddhism
The pain, poverty & sorrow that afflict human beings are caused by their attachment to things of this world The physical realm is illusion Desire’s attachments cause suffering

43 The Basic Principles of Buddhism
Nirvana – in Buddhism, ultimate reality, the end of the self & a reunion with the Great World Soul (p.78)

44 Four Noble Truths 1. Ordinary life is full of suffering
2. This suffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselves 3. The way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals & to see others as extensions of ourselves 4. The way to end desire is to follow the Middle Path

45 The Eightfold Path 1. Right View 2. Right intention 3. Right Speech
4. Right action 5. Right livelihood 6. Right effort 7. Right Mindfulness 8. Right concentration


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