3 AimStudents will be able to describe how the Four Varnas impacted India’s first empires.
4 The Four VarnasFour Varnas= social groups that ranked people from high to lowTop: Brahmins- priestly, in charge of religious ceremoniesKshatriyas- warriorsVaisyas- commoners who were merchants and farmersSudras- peasants or servantsSudras had limited rights
5 The Caste SystemIn the system, every Indian was believed to be born into a caste based on occupation and family lineage.A caste determined what jobs people could have, whom they could marry, and what groups they could socialize withHigher castes were believed to have greater religious purity and castes at the bottom were seen as impure.Lower group-Untouchables- people who were viewed as impure.Untouchables- given tasks like handling dead bodies
6 Hinduism Origins with the Aryan people Evidence of religion comes from Vedas- collections of hymns and religious ceremoniesBrahmin- single force in the universeAtman- duty of the individual to seek the ultimate realityOne achieves Brahmin through the use and performance of yoga.
7 AimStudents will be able to describe the teachings and principles of Hinduism.
8 YogaYoga- a method of training developed by the Hindus that is supposed to lead to oneness with BrahmanFour types:Path of KnowledgePath of LovePath of WorkPath of MeditationUltimate goal- leave behind the cycle of earthly life and achieve the spiritual union of the individual soul with the Great World Soul- Brahman
9 PolytheisticBelieved in many gods (three chief gods)- Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Shiva the DestroyerHindus sought not only salvation but also a means of gaining ordinary things they need in life
10 Principles of Hinduism Reincarnation- belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after deathKarma- the force of a person’s actions in this life in determining how the person will be reborn in the next lifeKarma goes by social class- Brahmins are seen as the closest to being released from the law of reincarnation
11 Principles of Hinduism The concept of karma is ruled by the dharma- divine lawDharma requires all people to do their duty.Dharma duties are closely linked to the social class structure
12 Sacred TextsHinduism has no holy book but texts that have the beliefs of Hinduism.Three books: Upanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita, and the Verdas
13 AimStudents will be able to explain the geography of India as well as the Buddhism religion.
15 Geography of India Subcontinent Shaped like a triangle Includes the Himalayan Mountains (the largest mountains in the world)Includes the Indus River ValleySouth of Indus River- Deccan- hilly, dry, sparsely populated
21 Siddhartha Gautama Founder of Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama came from a small kingdom- son of a princely family.Appeared to have everything: wealth, good appearance, model wife, child, a throne that would be his.Became aware of the pain and suffering of the world.Decided to leave his luxurious life to seek the cure for human suffering
23 Siddhartha Gautama Abused his physical body Came very close to dying from not eatingPracticed ascetics- self-denial to achieve ultimate realityOne day he was enlightened and spent the rest of his life preaching what he discovered.The teachings became the basic principles of Buddhism
24 Principles of Buddhism Believed that the physical surroundings were an illusionPain, poverty, and sorrow were cased by human attachment to thingsGoal: achieve nirvana- ultimate reality- the end of the self and a reunion with the Great World Soul
25 Four Noble Truths 1. Ordinary life is full of suffering 2. This suffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselves3. The way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals and to see others as extensions of ourselves.4. The way to end desire is to follow the Middle Path
26 Middle Path (Eightfold Path) 1. Right view- we need to know the Four Noble Truths2. Right intention- we need to decide what we really want3. Right speech- we must seek to speak truth and to speak well of others.4. Right action- do not kill, do not steal, do not life, do not consume alcohol or drugs.5. Right livelihood- we must do work that uplifts us
27 Middle Path (Eightfold Path) 6. Right effort7. Right mindfulness- we must keep our minds in control of our senses8. Right concentration- we must meditate to see the world in a new way
28 Buddhism and Reincarnation Accepted the idea of reincarnationDid not believe in the defined castes and reincarnationHumans should reach nirvana as a result of their behavior in this life
29 BuddhismSiddhartha forbade his followers from worshiping him or his imageEventually agreed to accept women into the Buddhist monastic order
40 Gupta Empire Reasons why it fell: 1. Weak rulers and foreign invasions 2. Invaders: White Huns from central Asia3. Nomads destroyed villages
41 Government in the Gupta Empire Maintained a strong central governmentGave power to local leadersThe local leaders were elected by merchants and artisansEach village had a headman and council who made decisions for the villageIn earlier times, women were allowed to serve on councils.Overtime, Hindu law placed greater restrictions on women
42 Accomplishments of Gupta Empire Established universitiesSupported arts and literatureDeveloped the concept of zero and the decimal systemUsed Sanskrit language to write literatureUsed herbs and other remedies to treat illnessesSurgeons set bones and repaired injuriesVaccinated people against smallpox
43 **Overall Indian Family Life** Patriarchal- father or oldest male was the head of the householdChildren learned the family trade or worked the fields like their parentsArrange marriageWomen’s roles were restricted over time.Upper class women were restricted to their homes and had to be covered from head to toeLower class women were to work in the fields or did spinning