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Chapter 1 The Study of Communication, Gender & Culture

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1 Chapter 1 The Study of Communication, Gender & Culture
Gendered Lives Chapter 1 The Study of Communication, Gender & Culture

2 I. Communication, Gender, and Culture as an Area of Study
A. Expanded Knowledge of Gender, Communication, Culture 1. Only the last 20 years… 2. 110,000

3 B. The Value of Studying Communication, Gender, & Culture
1. Learning about communication, gender, and culture: a. Help you understand and critique gendered patterns of interaction b. Enhances insight into own gender c. Strengthens effectiveness as a communicator

4 II. Gender In a Transitional Era
A. On one level 1. Think women and men equal B. On another level 1. May hold traditional views It depends on your frame of reference C. Thoughts vs. Actions

5 III. Differences Between Women & Men
A. Are men and women really that different?? B. Several variables influence us such as: C. Essentializing Presume all members of sex alike

6 IV. Relationships among Gender, Culture, & Communication
Gender, culture, communication interlinked Cannot study one without understanding other two

7 A. Sex 1. Sex = designation based on biology
2. Gender = socially constructed and expressed a. Sex and gender usually go together b. Can be inconsistent

8 A. Sex 3. Male or female based on external genitalia and internal sex organs a. Genitalia and sex markers determined by chromosomes XX XY

9 A. Sex 4. Hormones influence development
a. Fetuses with Y bathed in androgens (Development of male sex organs) b. Fetuses without Y - fewer androgens (Development of female sex organs)

10 A. Sex 5. Influence of hormones continues throughout lifetime
a. Males more sensitive to hormonal activity 6. Biology influences how we develop but doesn’t determine behavior or personality

11 A. Sex 7. Some people are born with biological characteristics of each sex a. Traditionally called hermaphrodites Today the term intersexed is preferred

12 B. Gender RECAP: Born male or female (sex)
Learn to act masculine and/or feminine (gender) Gender changes over time

13 B. Gender 1. Gender depends on a society’s values, and varies from culture to culture In America Masculine = strong, successful, rational, emotionally controlled Feminine = attractive, nurturing, deferential, expressive

14 B. Gender 2. Gender is learned 3. We do not passively receive gender
4. Gender is not stable Gender queer Androgynous Transgendered Transexual

15 B. Gender 5. Relational concept
Femininity and masculinity make sense in relation Meanings of gender are also changed by: Personal communication Role models Interactions with friends As meanings of one changes – so do meanings of the other

16 C. Culture 1. Culture = structures, institutions, practices that reflect and uphold social order Upheld by defining certain groups, values, expectations, as good

17 C. Culture 2. Surrounded by communication that announces social views of gender 3. Global variations Mead (1968) Hofstede 4. Western culture is patriarchal Pre and Post Industrial Revolution 5. Ethnic variations

18 D. Communication 1. Communication is dynamic
Continually changes, evolves No beginnings or endings

19 D. Communication 2. Communication is systemic
Culture has the largest impact on how we communicate 3. All aspects of communication are interlinked Influenced by how we feel Time of day, etc. may be influence

20 D. Communication 4. Communication has two levels:
a. Content level of meaning Literal meaning b. Relationship level of meaning Tell how to interpret content and how communicators see themselves in relationship

21 D. Communication 5. Meanings created through interaction with symbols
Humans symbol-using creatures Have to think to figure out what symbol means Symbols can be ambiguous More than one meaning

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