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Gender Stratification Chapter 11

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1 Gender Stratification Chapter 11

2 Learning Objectives Contrast biological and sociological views of sex and gender. What is gender stratification? Do we live under a patriarchal ideology. How do we learn gender-roles. Describe gender differences in the world of work. Be aware of the effect of changes in gender roles in U.S. society.

3 Sex and Gender Sex Gender
The physical and biological differences between men and women. Evident by physical distinctions in anatomical, chromosomal, hormonal, and physiological characteristics. Gender The social, psychological, and cultural attributes of masculinity and femininity that are based on the previous biological distinctions.

4 Sex and Gender Can you think of instances where the experiences of males and females are complicated by issues of sex and gender? Gay, bisexual, pansexual Intersexed individuals What should you write on the birth certificate? Transgender or transexual individuals Does it have to exist in binary oppositions?

5 Terminology Transgender: a generic term for a person of one biological sex who displays characteristics of the opposite sex Cross-dresser: a generic term for individuals who may dress or present themselves in the gender of the opposite sex Cross-dressers may be heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual.

6 Sex and Gender Are differences in gender between males and females natural to human beings? Biological views Physiological differences The Sociological View

7 How comfortable are you with the gender roles our society defines as appropriate for males and females? Activities? Professions? Media portrayals How about toys?

8 You know you want it! Ok, now he was close Tried to domesticate you But you're an animal Baby, it's in your nature Just let me liberate you You don't need no papers That man is not your maker And that's why I'm gon' take a Good girl Soo, exactly what blurred lines is the song referring to?

9 Gender-Role Socialization
Lifelong process whereby people learn: Values Attitudes Motivations Behaviors All considered appropriate to each sex according to their culture.

10 Terminology Gender role: the behaviors assigned to women and men in a society Women are expected to nurture children. Sex role: behaviors defined by biological constraints Only women can nurse infants. Discussion: What does it mean to “do gender?”

11 Agents of Socialization
Agents of socialization are individuals and groups that influence development. Family: parents and siblings Race/ethnicity: different gender roles Peers: important throughout the school years Religion: emphasis of some on traditional roles Discussion: How were you treated differently by your parents because you were male or female? How do peers influence gender development?

12 Agents of Socialization
Education: schools and teachers Economy: occupation sex segregation—the concentration of men and women in different occupations Mass media: movies, television, books, and magazines Discussion: Were boys and girls treated differently in your schools? What gender images are presented by children’s television?

13 Education Inequality

14 Consequences of Traditional Gender Role Socialization
Less income: Women earn about 2/3 of what men earn. Feminization of poverty: disproportionate percentage of those living in poverty constituted by women living alone and with their children

15 Table 2.2: Women’s and Men’s Median Income with Similar Education
Holding education constant, women still earn less than men. Discussion: Why do women earn less than men?

16 Consequences Higher risk for sexually transmitted infections for women
Negative body image for women Sexism: an attitude, action, or institutional structure that subordinates or discriminates against individuals and groups because of their sex Less marital satisfaction for women Discussion: Why do women tend to feel more negatively about their bodies?

17 Consequences Positive consequences for women:
Longer life expectancy: 81.4 (women) compared to 76.4 (men) Stronger relationship focus Keeping relationship on track Bonding with children

18 Consequences Negative consequences for men:
Identity synonymous with occupation Limited expression of emotions Fear of intimacy Custody disadvantages Shorter life expectancy

19 Consequences Positive consequences for men: Freedom of movement
Greater pool of potential partners Norm of initiating a relationship

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