2 Learning ObjectivesContrast biological and sociological views of sex and gender.What is gender stratification?Do we live under a patriarchal ideology.How do we learn gender-roles.Describe gender differences in the world of work.Be aware of the effect of changes in gender roles in U.S. society.
3 Sex and Gender Sex Gender The physical and biological differences between men and women.Evident by physical distinctions in anatomical, chromosomal, hormonal, and physiological characteristics.GenderThe social, psychological, and cultural attributes of masculinity and femininity that are based on the previous biological distinctions.
4 Sex and GenderCan you think of instances where the experiences of males and females are complicated by issues of sex and gender?Gay, bisexual, pansexualIntersexed individualsWhat should you write on the birth certificate?Transgender or transexual individualsDoes it have to exist in binary oppositions?
5 TerminologyTransgender: a generic term for a person of one biological sex who displays characteristics of the opposite sexCross-dresser: a generic term for individuals who may dress or present themselves in the gender of the opposite sexCross-dressers may be heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual.
6 Sex and GenderAre differences in gender between males and females natural to human beings?Biological viewsPhysiological differencesThe Sociological View
7 How comfortable are you with the gender roles our society defines as appropriate for males and females?Activities?Professions?Media portrayalsHow about toys?
8 You know you want it!Ok, now he was close Tried to domesticate you But you're an animal Baby, it's in your nature Just let me liberate you You don't need no papers That man is not your maker And that's why I'm gon' take aGood girlSoo, exactly what blurred lines is the song referring to?
9 Gender-Role Socialization Lifelong process whereby people learn:ValuesAttitudesMotivationsBehaviorsAll considered appropriate to each sex according to their culture.
10 TerminologyGender role: the behaviors assigned to women and men in a societyWomen are expected to nurture children.Sex role: behaviors defined by biological constraintsOnly women can nurse infants.Discussion: What does it mean to “do gender?”
11 Agents of Socialization Agents of socialization are individuals and groups that influence development.Family: parents and siblingsRace/ethnicity: different gender rolesPeers: important throughout the school yearsReligion: emphasis of some on traditional rolesDiscussion: How were you treated differently by your parents because you were male or female? How do peers influence gender development?
12 Agents of Socialization Education: schools and teachersEconomy: occupation sex segregation—the concentration of men and women in different occupationsMass media: movies, television, books, and magazinesDiscussion: Were boys and girls treated differently in your schools? What gender images are presented by children’s television?
14 Consequences of Traditional Gender Role Socialization Less income: Women earn about 2/3 of what men earn.Feminization of poverty: disproportionate percentage of those living in poverty constituted by women living alone and with their children
15 Table 2.2: Women’s and Men’s Median Income with Similar Education Holding education constant, women still earn less than men.Discussion: Why do women earn less than men?
16 Consequences Higher risk for sexually transmitted infections for women Negative body image for womenSexism: an attitude, action, or institutional structure that subordinates or discriminates against individuals and groups because of their sexLess marital satisfaction for womenDiscussion: Why do women tend to feel more negatively about their bodies?
17 Consequences Positive consequences for women: Longer life expectancy: 81.4 (women) compared to 76.4 (men)Stronger relationship focusKeeping relationship on trackBonding with children
18 Consequences Negative consequences for men: Identity synonymous with occupationLimited expression of emotionsFear of intimacyCustody disadvantagesShorter life expectancy
19 Consequences Positive consequences for men: Freedom of movement Greater pool of potential partnersNorm of initiating a relationship