2 Sex Roles Sex is biological Gender is self or social conception of masculinity and femininityVirtually every known society differentiates people on the basis of genderAlso based on male domination
3 Gender-Identity Formation Typical prenatal differentiation (6 weeks)23 human chromosomes22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosomeChromosomal sexXX: female XY: maleDSS gene on X SRY gene on YOvaries Testes
4 Typical Prenatal Differentiation Part 1 Gonadal sexOvaries or testes (DSS or SRY)Hormonal sexEstrogens & androgens (once developed release)
5 Sex Differentiation Hypothalamus Cerebral hemispheres absent testosterone during prenatal differentiation (pregnancy)leads to receptor cells initiating menstrual cycleCerebral hemispheresCorpus callosum (thicker in women)
6 Typical Prenatal Differentiation Part 2 Internal structuresMullerian (female) or Wolffian duct systems develop into female or male internal organsExternal structuresGenital tubercle develops into clitoris or penisLabio-scrotal swelling develops into labia or scrotum
7 Prenatal Differentiation of Internal Structures Prenatal development of male and female duct systems from undifferentiated (before sixth week) to differentiated.
8 Prenatal Differentiation of External Genitals Prenatal development of male and female external genitals from undifferentiated to fully differentiated.
9 Prenatal Differentiation of External Genitals Prenatal development of male and female external genitals from undifferentiated to fully differentiated.
10 Atypical Prenatal Differentiation Part 1 IntersexedHermaphroditesBoth ovarian and testicular tissuePseudohermaphroditesGonads match chromosomal sexSex chromosome disorders (see table page 54)Turner’s syndrome XOOnly 1 sex chromosome, external OK, internal not developedKlinefelter’s syndrome XXYAntomically male, sterile, little interest
11 Transsexualism and Transgenderism TransexualismCross gender identification and gender dysphoriaTransgenderedPeople whose appearance and/or behavior does not conform to traditional gender rolesIntersexed peopleGender Identity vs. sexual orientation
12 Options for Transsexuals Gender blending / cross-dressingPsychotherapySex reassignment
13 Doing Gender Should not be based on size Gender is active Penis is too small, can’t possibly be a manGender is activePerformance with props, signs, symbols, behaviors, emotionsSex changes vs. cross dressers as evidence
14 The Interactional Model Acknowledgment of both nature and nurtureRelative roles are still unclear
15 Other IssuesOur culture believes certain characteristics are feminine and thus should not be part of being maleMales: independent and aggressiveFemales: nonassertive, warm, and nurturantRecent trend away from rigid stereotypesEthnic Variation in gender rolesWhat happens when women or men decide to contradict the larger culture’s views on femininity or masculinity?
16 Margaret MeadFound that in some societies men are more emotional and feminine than the women in that societyArgued that personality differences between the sexes are cultural creations, which we are trained to conform
17 Margaret Mead Majority of society will conform, few deviants However she wanted to know why men and women were so divided in most cultures- regardless of the divisionWhy are boys taught not to show fear and for girls it is okay to show fear?
18 Institutions 5 Social Institutions Family, economy, religion, political order, and educationLet’s focus on family and school for now
19 FamilyFirst thing known about new babyToysChoresRole models
20 School Boys and girls reinforce and teach gender Males receive more attention in classThey need it, can’t sit still, etc.Demand more of it, call out
21 Changes Despite this extra attention boys generally do worse in school ADD, mentally retarded, learning disabled (71%), emotionally disturbed (81%)Schools are run by women, for girlsExpected to sit quietly
22 Effects Boys tend to be overconfident Girls begin to undervalue their abilitiesComparing math scores when girls and boys did the same, boys rate their abilities higher and girls lower
23 The best thing about being a boy… Playing Sports (24.5%)Being Strong (20.7%)Entitlement (17.7%)Listened to moreAllowed to do moreGreater respect
24 The best thing about being a girl… Appearance (22.5%)Nothing (17.7%)More boys than girls submitted this answerAcademic Advantage (13.4%)
25 Androgyny: Transcending Gender Roles Blending of typical male and female behaviors in one individualBenefits and drawbacksMay show more flexibility & comfort with sexuality