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Sex Roles Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Sex Roles Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sex Roles Introduction

2 Sex Roles Sex is biological
Gender is self or social conception of masculinity and femininity Virtually every known society differentiates people on the basis of gender Also based on male domination

3 Gender-Identity Formation
Typical prenatal differentiation (6 weeks) 23 human chromosomes 22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome Chromosomal sex XX: female XY: male DSS gene on X SRY gene on Y Ovaries Testes

4 Typical Prenatal Differentiation Part 1
Gonadal sex Ovaries or testes (DSS or SRY) Hormonal sex Estrogens & androgens (once developed release)

5 Sex Differentiation Hypothalamus Cerebral hemispheres
absent testosterone during prenatal differentiation (pregnancy) leads to receptor cells initiating menstrual cycle Cerebral hemispheres Corpus callosum (thicker in women)

6 Typical Prenatal Differentiation Part 2
Internal structures Mullerian (female) or Wolffian duct systems develop into female or male internal organs External structures Genital tubercle develops into clitoris or penis Labio-scrotal swelling develops into labia or scrotum

7 Prenatal Differentiation of Internal Structures
Prenatal development of male and female duct systems from undifferentiated (before sixth week) to differentiated.

8 Prenatal Differentiation of External Genitals
Prenatal development of male and female external genitals from undifferentiated to fully differentiated.

9 Prenatal Differentiation of External Genitals
Prenatal development of male and female external genitals from undifferentiated to fully differentiated.

10 Atypical Prenatal Differentiation Part 1
Intersexed Hermaphrodites Both ovarian and testicular tissue Pseudohermaphrodites Gonads match chromosomal sex Sex chromosome disorders (see table page 54) Turner’s syndrome XO Only 1 sex chromosome, external OK, internal not developed Klinefelter’s syndrome XXY Antomically male, sterile, little interest

11 Transsexualism and Transgenderism
Transexualism Cross gender identification and gender dysphoria Transgendered People whose appearance and/or behavior does not conform to traditional gender roles Intersexed people Gender Identity vs. sexual orientation

12 Options for Transsexuals
Gender blending / cross-dressing Psychotherapy Sex reassignment

13 Doing Gender Should not be based on size Gender is active
Penis is too small, can’t possibly be a man Gender is active Performance with props, signs, symbols, behaviors, emotions Sex changes vs. cross dressers as evidence

14 The Interactional Model
Acknowledgment of both nature and nurture Relative roles are still unclear

15 Other Issues Our culture believes certain characteristics are feminine and thus should not be part of being male Males: independent and aggressive Females: nonassertive, warm, and nurturant Recent trend away from rigid stereotypes Ethnic Variation in gender roles What happens when women or men decide to contradict the larger culture’s views on femininity or masculinity?

16 Margaret Mead Found that in some societies men are more emotional and feminine than the women in that society Argued that personality differences between the sexes are cultural creations, which we are trained to conform

17 Margaret Mead Majority of society will conform, few deviants
However she wanted to know why men and women were so divided in most cultures- regardless of the division Why are boys taught not to show fear and for girls it is okay to show fear?

18 Institutions 5 Social Institutions
Family, economy, religion, political order, and education Let’s focus on family and school for now

19 Family First thing known about new baby Toys Chores Role models

20 School Boys and girls reinforce and teach gender
Males receive more attention in class They need it, can’t sit still, etc. Demand more of it, call out

21 Changes Despite this extra attention boys generally do worse in school
ADD, mentally retarded, learning disabled (71%), emotionally disturbed (81%) Schools are run by women, for girls Expected to sit quietly

22 Effects Boys tend to be overconfident
Girls begin to undervalue their abilities Comparing math scores when girls and boys did the same, boys rate their abilities higher and girls lower

23 The best thing about being a boy…
Playing Sports (24.5%) Being Strong (20.7%) Entitlement (17.7%) Listened to more Allowed to do more Greater respect

24 The best thing about being a girl…
Appearance (22.5%) Nothing (17.7%) More boys than girls submitted this answer Academic Advantage (13.4%)

25 Androgyny: Transcending Gender Roles
Blending of typical male and female behaviors in one individual Benefits and drawbacks May show more flexibility & comfort with sexuality

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