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An Interactive Workshop on Gender Sponsored by PEARL2 and Isis International – Manila Understanding Gender
Topics to be Discussed Understanding Gender Concepts Differentiating Sex from Gender It’s implications on roles and identity Gender and Social Construction Gender Issues and how it affects men and women
Nature vs. Culture Women are weak and very emotional therefore unfit to occupy leadership positions. Men are natural leaders because they are very rational beings. Women are naturally nurturing which is why they make good nurses and teachers. Men are really “bread winners” as they are good economic providers All women want to be wives and mothers. Fathers remain to have the final say. Childcare is the mother’s primary responsibility. All men are good in sports.
Defining SEX This about differences of people based on biological characteristics, for example: Physical Characteristics - characteristics that are present only (exclusively) to men only or women only, for example: primary sex characteristics – example male or female genitalia secondary sex characteristics – facial and body hair Characteristics that are present from birth (genitalia) May be used as label or identification – male or female, man or woman, babae o lalaki
Defining Gender Refers to the socially learned behaviors and expectations that are associated with the two sexes. This is set by culture and society Changes through time and history Attributes and designations may change depending on the place and the culture
Gender Expectations One’s biological sex usually establishes a pattern of gendered expectations, although biological sex is not always the same as gender identity. Femininity and masculinity are cultural concepts and as such have fluctuating meanings, are learned differently by different members of culture, and are relative to the historical and cultural contexts in which they emerge.
Gender Roles Are the expectations for behavior and attitudes that the culture defines as appropriate for men and women.
Gender Identity An individual’s specific definition of self, based on that person’s understanding of what it means to be a man or woman. Conforming to sanctions and expectations – gender appropriate behavior
Gender and Social Control The socialization process controls us in several ways: – Gives us a definition of ourselves – Defines the external world and our place in it – Provides our definition of others, our relationships – Encourages and discourages acquisition of certain skills by gender
Understanding Gender Refers to the complex social, political, economic, and psychological relations between men and women in society Gender is part of the social structure. Gender speaks of unequal power relations between men and women
Characteristics of Gender Relational – socially constructed Hierarchical – gender relations as power relations Changes over time Context specific – varies with ethnicity, class, culture, religion, etc. Institutional - Systemic
Separation of Public from Private Economic, political and social affairs Subject to social norms and sanctions Open to public scrutiny Male concern Domestic and personal concerns Individual personal conscience Private/ intimate Female sphere
Effects of Gender Roles on Men Stereotypes men’s roles, identities and attributes. Places on men expectations and roles not of his own choice and decision. Puts unnecessary burdens on men. Others?
Effects of Gender Roles on Women Violence Exclusion Discrimination Marginalization Exploitation Others?
The Social Construction of Gender The many different processes by which the expectations associated with being a boy (man) and being a girl (woman) are passed on through society.
Socialization Across the Life Course Gendering or the socialization of persons into a given gender begins the moment a child is born Four processes involved in a child’s learning of gender identity – Manipulation – Canalization – Verbal Appellation – Activity Exposure –
Institutions of Mass Socialization Institutions of Mass Socialization – those which aim to ensure that whole groups of people consent to fit into the existing social order – also play an important role in promoting he dominant gender ideology and inequality.
Our Gendered Institutions Gender is systematically structured in social institutions, it is deeply embedded into our social structures. Gender is created in the family, within our social relationships, schools, religion, economy, even the state. The total pattern of gender relations – stereotypes, interpersonal relationships, men and women’s different placements in social, economic, and political hierarchies.
Our Companies as Gendered Institutions What are the gender issues and concerns? How can they be addressed? How do addressing these gender issues and concerns translate to better business?
References Dionisio, Eleanor, More Alike than Different, National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women Mananzan, Sr. Mary John, The Woman Question in the Philippines, Institute of Women’s Studies, 1997 Andersen, Margaret L., Thinking About Women: Sociological Perspectives on Sex and Gender, Allyn and Bacon, 1997
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