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Gender, Sex, and Sexuality

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1 Gender, Sex, and Sexuality
Chapter 11 Section 1: Defining Sex and Gender

2 Sex and Its Biological Components
Sex refers to the properties of a person that determine his or her classification as male or female. One structure of our physical bodies that scientists use to classify us is our chromosomes. Sex Chromosomes are the 23rd pair of chromosomes that determines a person’s sex (male or female). Females have two sex chromosomes that are similar and are called X Chromosomes. Males have one X and one Y chromosome. Sex and Its Biological Components

3 Another structure used to classify us as male or female is our gonads
Gonads are a part of the endocrine system that produces sex hormones and generates ova in females and sperm in males. In females, the gonads are called the ovaries In males, the gonads are called the testes. Female hormones are estrogens. Male hormones are androgens. These hormones play a role in the development of internal reproductive structures, external genitalia and the secondary sex characteristics. Another structure used to classify us as male or female is our gonads

4 Sexuality Female Sex Organs Female Ovary Uterus Cervix Bladder
Pubic bone Vagina Urethra Anus Build image: confirm client intent to add 9 layers? Clitoris Sexuality Female

5 Sexuality Male Sex Organs Male Large intestine Bladder Seminal vesicle
Pubic bone Ejaculatory duct Vas deferens Prostate Urethra Anus Penis Build image: confirm client intent to add 13 layers? Testis Sexuality Scrotum Glans Male

6 At puberty, we develop secondary sex characteristics.
Secondary sex characteristics, or traits that differ between the two sexes but are not part of the reproductive system. Puberty is a period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation occurring in adolescence. At puberty, we develop secondary sex characteristics.

7 The social and psychological aspects of being male or female is known as gender.
Gender Identity is an individual’s sense of belonging to the male or female sex and is multifaceted. Terms such as masculinity and femininity, attributes meaning “being like a man” and “being like a woman,” Instrumentality (for more masculine traits) Expressiveness (for more feminine traits). Gender

8 Individuals who are high in both dimensions are considered androgynous, meaning they have attributes we typically associate with both genders. Researcher’s show that individuals who are not strongly gender-typed according to these scales tend to have better psychological adjustment and resilience than those rated as extremely masculine or feminine. Gender-typed

9 From Genes to Sex to Gender
After conception, male and female embryos look alike. The difference in male and female biological development is a particular gene on the Y Chromosome called the SRY gene. Three months after conception the SRY gene is activated influencing the development of the body and brain. Brain development is different in males and females. From Genes to Sex to Gender

10 Disorders of Sexual Development
Prenatal hormonal exposure, chromosomal abnormalities, and environmental factors can affect the developing genitals. The results are sexually ambiguous, resulting in an intersex condition or hermaphroditism which falls under the category of disorders of sexual development (DSD). Disorders of Sexual Development

11 Disorders of Sexual Development
The famous John/Joan case illustrates the flexibility of gender and nurture’s triumph over nature. Over time, “Joan” really became “David,” demonstrating the large biological factors guiding the way from sex to gender identity. IS SOCIALIZATION WHAT FORMS OUR IDENITY????????????? Socialization is powerfully related to gender identity, but not perfectly. Determining a child’s physical condition (being male or female when ambiguous genitalia are present) is a difficult choice that should be based on the child’s well-being and future sexual functioning, not on parental distress. John Money’s belief in socialization in gender formation. Disorders of Sexual Development

12 When Genetic Sex and Gender Conflict: Transgender Experience
Transgender refers to experiencing one’s psychological gender as different from one’s physical sex. The APA classifies people who feel trapped in the wrong biological sex as suffering from gender identity disorder (GID). Gender dysphoria is a defining feature of GID and is explained as distress over one’s born sex. An empirically validated treatment is sex reassignment surgery for GID. Many transgender individuals do not elect the sex reassignment surgery and opt for hormone treatment only, while others simply think of their gender identity in an alternative broader way. When Genetic Sex and Gender Conflict: Transgender Experience

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