2 Women are made, not born Sex vs. Sexuality vs. Gender Social ConstructionGender: women & femininitySex: female
3 Sex The biological aspects of a person; male or female Does biology determine behavior?The way we understand sex is socially constructed
4 Sexualitybiological, behavioral and political components involved in personal attractionComplex and changes over lifetime
5 GenderThe socially learned & observable behaviors and expectations associated with male and femalemasculinity and femininityGender “performance” changes throughout time & cultureRace, class and sexual orientation all impact one’s gender performance
6 SocializationThe process by which we learn the norms of the culture and acquire a sense of self or personalityHow we learn to perform masculinity and femininity
7 Social Construction of Gender Process by which the expectations associated with being male and female are passed on through societySexCategoryGenderStatusNaming, dress, activities
8 Gender Identity Gendered sense of self Gender is the most important thing we feel we need to determine about a person
9 Gender Ranking The basis for sexism The valuation of one gender over anotherMale over FemaleThe valuation of one performance of a specific gender over anotherMadonna over whoreYoung over oldWhite angel over black mammy
10 Femininity & WomenThe social environment places constraints on individuals’ bodies & behaviorsFemininity is based on binary aspects that create a narrow path for appropriate behaviorCurrent definitions of femininity emphasize “superwoman”, which leaves majority with feelings of inferiority
11 The Social Construction of Sex How many sexes and genders do exist?How can we discuss gender and sexual diversity when all the mechanisms of legal and extralegal render transgendered and intersexed lives invisible?
13 Brain Differentiation Evidence indicates that differences exist between human male and female brainsShapeFunctioningThese differences may develop after birth rather than prenatally“Embodiment”Environment HormonesOrgansBeing
14 Variability Within Gender Is Larger Than Mean Difference Between Genders.