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Gender and Sexuality Dr Rhoda Wilkie SO 1004.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender and Sexuality Dr Rhoda Wilkie SO 1004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender and Sexuality Dr Rhoda Wilkie SO 1004

2 Week 10: Becoming Gendered (1)
some commonsense assumptions sex-gender distinction gender stereotypes historical and anthropological evidence?

3 how is gender socially constructed?
Becoming Gendered (2) how is gender socially constructed? gender roles, socialisation process and the role of social institutions (e.g. family & school) summary

4 commonsense assumptions …
there are only two sex/gender categories interchangeable use of terms it is ‘natural’: taken-for-granted and it has always been this way?

5 ‘two-sex’ model (Laqueur 1990)
e.g. medical anatomical illustrations of reproductive organs shift from ‘one-sex’ model - emphasised similarities mid 18th century - ‘two-sex’ model - emphasised binary differences

6 ‘sex’ biological distinction between females and males
female (XX) and male (XY): chromosomes; hormones; reproductive organs; external and internal genitals and secondary sex characteristics - assigned at birth – genitals - fixed

7 ‘gender’ distinction between ‘sex’ and ‘gender’
Ann Oakley (1972) Sex, Gender and Society social, psychological and cultural interpretation of biological sex basis of assigning and classifying behaviours and attributes as ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ ‘mapped on’ respectively to male and female?

8 gender stereotypes e.g.:
Masculinity assertive rational strong active competitive unemotional (culture) Femininity submissive intuitive weak passive cooperative emotional (nature)

9 gender: power and inequality?
not just about differences hierarchically organised and valued e.g. men and masculinity privileged over women and femininity? POWER and INEQUALITY? (‘patriarchy’ – discuss further next week)

10 ‘One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman’
Simone de Beauvoir (1949: 295) ‘One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman’ feminists challenge the idea that ‘biology is destiny’

11 cross-cultural differences
historical and anthropological studies e.g. Margaret Mead (1935) - New Guinea - three societies: Arapesh, Mundugmor and Tchambuli central role of culture social change?

12 how is gender socially constructed?
socialisation (see Oakley 1972) gender roles lifelong process social institutions e.g. family, school, work and media

13 e.g. family…. primary socialisation
parent-child interactions e.g. ‘Adam’ and ‘Beth’ gendered childrearing practices gendered task allocation

14 deviate from culturally-specific gender role expectations? e.g.:
girls – ‘tomboys’ boys – ‘sissy’ women – assertive – aggressive? men- emotionally expressive? gender-neutral childrearing?

15 e.g. school … secondary socialisation
teacher-pupil interaction and expectations reinforce gender-stereotyped roles subject - career choices

16 summary … ‘sex’ (male/female) – biological concept
‘gender’ (masculinity/femininity) – social and cultural interpretation of biological sex cross-cultural and historical evidence nature v nurture debate

17 In other words … born as human beings (males and females)
become gendered social beings - masculinity and femininity lifelong process of socialisation - learn and acquire socially and culturally appropriate gender roles and gender identities

18 lecture tomorrow … sexual/gender ambiguity – intersex/ transsexuals/ transgender? are there masculinities and femininities? what about agency (choice) – do we play an active part – is gender something we ‘do’?

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