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By 1900 only 2 African Nations remained independent... Ethiopia Liberia.

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Presentation on theme: "By 1900 only 2 African Nations remained independent... Ethiopia Liberia."— Presentation transcript:


2 By 1900 only 2 African Nations remained independent... Ethiopia Liberia


4 Roots of Independence Movement Desire for freedom never abandoned Post WW1 &WW2 movements American Civil Rights Movement Nasser & Arab Nationalism

5 Struggle for Independence Traditional Colony Colonial Government Export Based Economy European Settled Colony Colonial Government Export Based Economy White Minority Rule Legalized Discrimination

6 Ghana Becomes Independent 1957 Lead by Kwame Nkrumah 1st Colony to Achieve Independence Avoids Tribal Conflicts Kwame Nkrumah

7 OAU Nhrumah founded the OAU-- Organization of African Unity worked to promote African economic independence Nkrumah & WEB de Bois work on Pan-African Movement

8 Rebellion in Kenya British colony of Kenya heavily settled by White farmers Took land from Kikuyu and Masai people

9 Mau Mau Rebellion Mau Mau called themselves the Land & Freedom Party protested for Independence mass arrests

10 Jomo Kenyatta Kikuyu leader arrested for “terrorism” imprisoned for 8 years became President of Kenya

11 Jomo Kenyatta Kenya becomes strongest democracy in Africa Kenyatta made Kenya an economic success He stays in power too long = corruption & abuse

12 Ending Apartheid in South Africa African National Congress Political Party began fight against Apartheid

13 Apartheid Non-white population not allowed to live in white cities Forced them to work long distances from where their families could live

14 Nelson Mandela Leader of ANC arrested and jailed for 28 years 120 ANC leaders were jailed

15 The Years of Struggle 1960: Sharpeville Massacre –Stay at Home Campaign 1976: Soweto Uprising

16 Steve Biko Biko organized student protests against Apartheid banned person Smuggled his writings out beaten to death by police

17 Bishop Desmond Tutu Anglican minister who led international protest against Apartheid South Africa sanctioned

18 Impact of Sanctions Worldwide Protest against Apartheid Ban on Trade & Banking Financial Crisis in South Africa

19 F.W. de Klerk & Nelson Mandela De Klerk, white prime minister negotiated with Mandela released him from Prison made agreement for free elections with all South African’s allowed to vote

20 South Africa Avoids Bloodbath

21 South African Independence 1994: first free elections Nelson Mandela elected President of South Africa 1994 to present: South Africans work to create economic equality tribunal: trials for criminal acts under Apartheid

22 Problems Faced By Independent Africa Debt from Colonial Period Pressure from World Bank to grow colonial export crop to pay off debt. Ethnic conflict Health Issues –Clean Water –High Infant Mortality Rate –Aids

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