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Section 3 New Nations in Africa After World War II, African leaders throw off colonial rule and create independent countries. NEXT.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 3 New Nations in Africa After World War II, African leaders throw off colonial rule and create independent countries. NEXT."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 3 New Nations in Africa After World War II, African leaders throw off colonial rule and create independent countries. NEXT

2 Achieving Independence Growing Unrest Negritude movement—pre-World War II celebration of African culture War effort emboldens Africans; Europeans question colonial policy too Colonies take different paths to freedom; some peaceful, some violent Many African colonies become new nations in years after World War II Most new African nations struggle to become stable and strong SECTION 3 New Nations in Africa Interactive

3 NEXT Ghana Leads the Way The First Independent Nation British colony, Gold Coast, is first to gain independence in 1957 Kwame Nkrumah—leader ousts Britain from Gold Coast Nkrumah serves as first president, attempts to modernize country His policies hurt economy; he is eventually ousted from power Army begins long rule in 1966; first free elections held in 2000 SECTION 3 Image

4 Kwame Nkrumah

5 NEXT Fighting for Freedom Kenya Claims Independence Jomo Kenyatta—leader of Kenyan independence movement Mau Mau—secret society of Kenyans who fight against British rule Kenya wins independence in 1963; Kenyatta becomes president Daniel arap Moi follows Kenyatta, ruling harshly, corruptly Moi resigns in 2002; new party gains power through free elections SECTION 3 Continued...

6 NEXT Algeria Struggles with Independence Algeria wins independence from France in 1962 after armed struggle Ahmed Ben Bella—first leader of Algeria, overthrown in 1965 Nation faces many problems; causes dissatisfaction among citizens Spurs rise of Islamic fundamentalists; group wins elections in 1991 Government does not cede power, prompts continual civil war continued Fighting for Freedom SECTION 3 Image


8 NEXT Civil War in Congo and Angola Freedom and Turmoil for Congo Congo wins independence from Belgium in 1960 Army leader Mobutu Sese Seko rules from 1965 to 1997 Rule is repressive and corrupt; overthrown by rebel forces Rebel leader takes control; rival groups continue to fight for power SECTION 3 War Tears at Angola Angolans fight for and win independence from Portugal in 1975 Two rival groups battle for power; civil war finally ends in 2002

9 The Challenge of Democracy in Africa Section 2 As the recent histories of Nigeria and South Africa show, ethnic and racial conflicts can hinder democracy.

10 Short-Lived Democracies Post-independence governments fragile, vulnerable to military coups European Policies Cause Problems Borders of colonies in Africa ignore ethnic, cultural divisions As a result, national identity is slow to develop in Africa Colonial rule produces economic problems Colonial rule also disrupts family, community life Colonial Rule Limits Democracy The Challenge of Democracy in Africa

11 A Land of Many Peoples Nigeria has people from three ethnic groups, each with own state Country adopts federal system—state, central governments share power Civil War in Nigeria War with Biafra In 1960s, country torn by ethnic fighting Military imposes martial law—temporary military rule—in 1966 In 1967, eastern region leaves Nigeria, forms new country of Biafra War ends in 1970 with Biafra defeated, Nigeria reunited

12 Nigeria’s Nation-Building Federal Government Restored In 1970s and 1980s military tries to create stable federal system A Return to Civilian Rule General Sani Abacha overturns election results of 1993, takes power He punishes dissidents—government opponents In 1999, civilian government finally gains power President Obasanjo Obasanjo tries to build strong, unified Nigeria by ending corruption Promotes idea of forgiveness of Nigeria’s debt to rebuild country

13 South Africa Under Apartheid Minority Rule South Africa gains independence in 1931; white minority rules Apartheid Segregates Society In 1948, National Party enacts apartheid— separation of races Government sets up reserves, called homelands, for blacks in 1959 Blacks Protest In 1912, blacks form African National Congress (ANC) to protest Nelson Mandela—ANC leader imprisoned for 27 years Protests rise in 1970s and 1980s, sometimes resulting in violence

14 Struggle for Democracy Pressure for Change Religious leader Desmond Tutu urges economic pressure on government He asks other countries not to trade with South Africa The First Steps In 1990, F. W. de Klerk legalizes ANC, frees Mandela from prison Parliament repeals apartheid laws, grants rights to blacks De Klerk agrees to elections open to all races to be held in 1994


16 continued Struggle for Democracy Majority Rule In 1994, ANC wins majority of Parliament; Mandela elected president A New Constitution In 1996, new constitution adopted giving equal rights to all South Africa Today In 1999, Thabo Mbeki elected president He faces challenges: high crime, unemployment, rampant poverty He hopes to increase trade with other countries Major problem facing South Africa is high number of people with AIDS



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