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Independence, Racism and Genocide

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1 Independence, Racism and Genocide
Unit 13: Modern Africa Independence, Racism and Genocide

2 Ancient Africa & Imperialism Review
African geography - diverse West African Kingdoms – Ghana, Mali, and Songhai East African Kingdoms – Axum and Nubia Scramble for Africa – Berlin Conference Boer War Zulus Egypt & Suez Canal

3 In the 1950s & 1960s, African colonies experienced decolonization, self-determination & gained their independence The first sub-Saharan African colony to gain its independence was Ghana in 1957

4 As a imperial power, Britain conquered much of Africa including Gold Coast
After WWII, Britain allowed Africans in Gold Coast to participate in local self governments Starting in 1947, Kwame Nkrumah used Gandhi’s non-violent strategy of boycotts & strikes to pressure Britain to grant independence

5 Nkrumah supported Pan-Africanism (unity among Africans) & hoped to create a “United States of Africa” Nkrumah created the Organization of African Unity (OAU). This group promoted Pan-Africanism and an end to colonialism in Africa After a decade of struggle, Britain granted Gold Coast independence in 1957 & the nation was renamed Ghana Kwame Nkrumah was elected president-for-life & began an ambitious series of road, education, health programs In 1966, Nkrumah was overthrown & Ghana struggled between military & civilian rule until elections were finally held in 2000

6 Kenya Jomo Kenyatta Kikuyu people turned to violent means to gain liberation. British jailed Kenyatta 1963 – Kenyatta became 1st prime minister to an independent Kenya

7 Obstacles to Progress in Africa
Population and Poverty Political Problems & Repressive Dictators Economic dependence on foreigners. Land and Climate Issues Failing Economic Systems Cash crops instead of food Failed socialist and mixed policies Africa shows great potential!!!

8 Unlike Ghana, demands for independence in South Africa were led by white colonists
When South Africa gained independence in 1931, white Afrikaners gained power & create a policy of apartheid Apartheid laws created strict racial segregation between blacks & whites

9 The African National Congress (ANC) used violence, as well as boycotts and nonviolent civil disobedience to oppose apartheid. Black South Africans protested apartheid & often violent riots broke out

10 The anti-apartheid leader was Nelson Mandela
In 1964, Mandela was arrested & given a life sentence for opposing apartheid laws In the 1980s, Desmond Tutu, a Black Anglican civil rights leader, convinced many foreign nations to halt trade with South Africa in protest of apartheid

11 In 1990, new South African President F. W
In 1990, new South African President F. W. de Clerk released Mandela from prison South African parliament repealed all apartheid laws & announced the first multiracial election in 1994 Nelson Mandela won the election & became South Africa’s first black president South Africans adopted a new constitution with a Bill of Rights that guaranteed equal rights for all citizens

12 After gaining independence, Nigeria erupted in an ethnic civil war
Not all African independence movements ended with democracy or without bloodshed After gaining independence, Nigeria erupted in an ethnic civil war In Congo, a series of civil wars weakened the newly-formed nation Ethnic divisions weakened Kenya’s government & led to violence & rule by dictators

13 Among the worst examples of violence in Africa is the genocide (mass killings) in Rwanda & Sudan
Before 1994, 85% Hutu 15% Tutsi The genocide was stopped when Tutsi-rebels seized control of the gov’t. Link to video on Rwandan genocide In Darfur in , the Sudanese gov’t killed up to 400,000 Muslims in an attempt to destroy an anti-gov’t rebel movement In Rwanda, ethnic conflict between rival clans led to the Hutus massacring between 500,000 & 800,000 Tutsi in 1994 Link to video on Darfur genocide (5.00)

14 U.N. Peacekeeping Interventions, 1945-2009
Genocide in Africa U.N. Peacekeeping Interventions, In 2002, 53 African nations formed the African Union (AU) in hopes of solving political, economic and environmental issues such as desertification, AIDS, and famine.

15 The Challenges in Africa Today
The Aids Epidemic in Africa (Link to NY Times video, 6.00)

16 The Challenges of Africa (Link to Zimbabwe video, 5.30)
The Challenges of Africa (Link to Zimbabwe video, 5.30)

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