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“African Independence”

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Presentation on theme: "“African Independence”"— Presentation transcript:

1 “African Independence”

2 Africans in WWI Role: Served w/allies (colonial powers)
Served as front line troops Served in auxiliary roles Only saw action in Africa WWI Impact on Africa: Africans who served return to villages with new ideas about freedoms Western ideas taught in African schools Africans organize nationalist groups

3 Africans in WWII Role: Served as front line troops and in
auxiliary roles Provided resources to the Allies Saw action in Middle East, Italy, Burma, Italy, and North and East Africa WWI Impact on Africa: Turning Point in African History!!!!! Post-war: Africans no longer satisfied to remain under colonial control Wave of nationalism seeps across Africa

4 African Nationalism Nationalism: loyalty and devotion to a nation or culture Pan-Africanism: A movement, founded around 1900, to secure equal rights, self-government, independence, and unity for African peoples

5 The British Colonies Ghana Background:
First colony to gain independence Colonial name: The Gold Coast Ghana Leader(s): Kwame Nkrumah: nationalist & independence leader Process: Use civil disobedience 1948 riots in Accra = British reforms Convention People’s Party created 1951 British allow free elections = CPP wins majority 1957 British grant independence

6 The British Colonies Kenya Background:
Inspired by Ghana’s independence Colonial name: British East Africa Leader(s): Jomo Kenyatta: independence leader/kikuyu Kikuyu: largest ethnic group Mau Mau: Kikuyu guerilla group Kenya Process: 1950’s British allow role in govt. whites oppose = loose land/crops Mau Mau Rebellion: violent rebellion against British 1963 Kikuyu win elections and declare independence

7 The British Colonies Malawi Zambia Zimbabwe Background: Leader(s):
Colonial name: British Central Africa 1953 Federation of Rhodesia & Nyasaland created (multiracial) Leader(s): Robert Mugabe: African leader in civil war; 1st prime minister Process: 1963 African majority votes to withdraw 1964 Zambia & Malawi created 1965 Southern Rhodesia breaks away = civil war (whites vs. Africans) 1979 elections held 1980 Mugabe leader & land renamed Zimbabwe Malawi Zambia Zimbabwe

8 The British Colonies Nigeria Background:
Igbo people ruled from 10th C. to 1911 when British took over 1914 divided south (wealthy) & north (poor) 1936 slavery outlawed in north Nigeria Process: 1960 British grant them independence Nigerian Civil War Military rule = oil boom Democracy to Military rule (back and forth) Leader(s): Nnamdi Azikiwe: first president

9 The French Colonies Senegal Guinea Background:
French Goal: integrate African colonies into post-WWII French Union Colonial name: French West Africa Senegal Guinea Cote D’Ivoire Leader(s): Sekou Toure: independence leader of Guinea Charles de Gaulle: French leader Process: Nationalist parties form 1958 French ultimatum = Join French Union or Independence 1958 Guinea breaks away 1960 Senegal & Ivory Coast granted independence

10 The French Colonies Algeria Background: French colony since 1800’s
Leader(s): Ahmed Ben Bella: FLN leader and 1st president Charles de Gaulle: French leader Process: National Liberation Front (FLN) demands independence 1954 Algerian War of Independence 1958 de Gaulle offers 3 options 1962 France grants independence

11 The Belgian Colonies Congo Background:
Congo rich in resources & minerals Congolese people are tribal = WWII brought unity Leader(s): Patrice Lumumba: independence leader & 1st prime minister Joseph Mobutu: military leader & dictator; seizes power after civil war Congo Process: 1955 Belgium sets 30 year timetable 1959 violent protests in capital June 1960 gain independence civil war = new govt. vs. military 1965 Mobutu and military seize control name changed to Zaire 70’s-90’s poor economy 1994 Rwandan genocide = refugees & destabilization Mobutu forced out & exiled 1997 renamed Dem of Congo

12 The Portuguese Colonies
Background: Post-WWII = Liberation Armies est. Colonial Name: Portuguese Guinea, West Africa, and East Africa Guinea- Bissau Leader(s): Liberation Army: military units created to fight for independence Angola Process: 1950’s-70’s bloody revolts = Portugal vs. Liberation Armies 1974 coup in Portugal = colonial withdrawal from Africa Independent nations of Guinea-Bissau, Angola, and Mozambique Mozambique

13 South Africa South Africa Background: 1795 British seize land (Dutch)
1806 becomes a British colony Boers settle in Orange Free State and found Boer Republic 1880 1st Boer War: Boers (Natives) vs. British for mineral wealth 1899 2nd Boer War 1909 South Africa Act places all areas under British control 1931 South Africa granted independence from Britain Afrikaners = 75% of population 13% of land & poor Whites = 25% of population 87% of land & wealthy South Africa

14 South Africa Leader(s): Nelson Mandela: ANC leader
and 1st African president of South Africa Steven Biko: anti-apartheid leader in South Africa Desmond Tutu: Anglican bishop and anti-apartheid crusader who preached non-violence F.W. de Klerk: military leader & dictator; seizes power after civil war South Africa

15 South Africa South Africa Process: Apartheid: legal racial segregation
in South Africa (1948) African National Congress created; political party against apartheid 1961 South Africa becomes a republic 1976 govt. crackdown against protests 1980’s world leaders & nations place sanctions on South Africa b/c apartheid 1989 K.W. de Klerk becomes president; makes reforms in South Africa 1994 free elections held; Nelson Mandela elected first black president South Africa

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